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Table 1 Comparison of demographic data, MMSE, HDS-R, ACE-III total and subscores in control, MCI, and dementia groups (n = 389, standard deviation in parenthesis)

From: Validation of Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination III for detecting mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Japan

  CONTROL MCI DEMENTIA D vs. C D vs. M M vs. C
  n = 74 n = 137 n = 178 P values P values P values
Sex, men/women 30/44 71/66 66/112 n.s. * n.s.
Age 72.1 (7.1) 75.3 (8.3) 78.6 (7.2) *** *** *
Education, years 12.9 (2.3) 13.0 (2.7) 12.0 (2.4) * ** n.s.
MMSE, 0–30 28.5 (1.6) 25.5 (2.4) 21.7 (3.3) *** *** ***
HDS-R, 0–30 27.8 (2.2) 23.5 (3.3) 18.7 (3.8) *** *** ***
ACE-III total score, 0–100 93.5 (3.4) 82.7 (7.2) 66.0 (11.4) *** *** ***
 Attention and Orientation, 0–18 17.3 (1.1) 16.0 (1.8) 13.0 (2.7) *** *** ***
 Memory, 0–26 23.6 (2.2) 16.8 (4.2) 9.8 (4.3) *** *** ***
 Fluency, 0–14 11.4 (1.7) 10.2 (2.3) 7.8 (2.7) *** *** **
 Language, 0–26 25.6 (0.8) 24.6 (1.7) 21.8 (3.9) *** *** n.s.
 Visuospatial, 0–16 15.6 (0.7) 15.1 (1.4) 13.6 (2.9) *** *** n.s.
  1. MMSE Mini-mental State Examination, HDS-R Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised, ACE-III Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-III, MCI mild cognitive impairment, D dementia, C control, M MCI, n.s. not significant
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Pairwise comparisons were performed using Bonferroni’s test