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Table 3 Odd ratios for ADL disabilities, IADL disabilities, upper-body limitations, lower-body limitations, and higher functional limitations according to HGS, UWS, and overall function by gender

From: Objective physical measures and their association with subjective functional limitations in a representative study population of older Thais

Variable Male Female
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR OR OR OR OR OR
Handgrip strength
 60–69 years
  ADL disabilities 17.25*** 20.01*** 20.48*** 5.90*** 6.70*** 3.39*
  IADL disabilities 1.84*** 1.77*** 1.45** 1.43*** 1.73*** 1.70***
  Upper-body limitations 2.85*** 2.79*** 2.69*** 1.40* 1.61*** 1.62***
  Lower-body limitations 2.33*** 2.25*** 2.19*** 1.90*** 2.15*** 2.24***
  Higher functional limitations 2.34*** 2.27*** 2.34*** 1.62*** 1.85*** 1.91***
 70–79 years
  ADL disabilities 10.74** 12.01** 22.80*** 3.05*** 3.10*** 2.59*
  IADL disabilities 2.26*** 2.18*** 2.35** 2.01*** 2.05*** 1.75**
  Upper-body limitations 3.41*** 3.61*** 3.60*** 1.70*** 1.86*** 1.34*
  Lower-body limitations 2.12*** 2.22*** 1.93*** 1.78*** 1.89*** 1.32*
  Higher functional limitations 2.13*** 2.12*** 2.65*** 1.75*** 1.84*** 1.31
Usual walking speed
 60–69 years
  ADL disabilities 6.92** 6.32** 5.77* 5.66*** 5.33*** 21.77***
  IADL disabilities 1.33 1.17 1.08 1.77*** 1.38*** 1.35**
  Upper-body limitations 1.72** 1.80*** 2.03*** 2.17*** 1.92*** 2.07***
  Lower-body limitations 2.03*** 2.15*** 2.29*** 2.45*** 2.18*** 2.21***
  Higher functional limitations 1.81* 1.88*** 2.35*** 2.46*** 2.06*** 2.31***
 70–79 years       
  ADL disabilities 20.09*** 29.67*** 25.96*** 4.80*** 4.94*** 2.45*
  IADL disabilities 1.12 1.14 1.05 1.95*** 1.69*** 1.32
  Upper-body limitations 2.81*** 2.88*** 2.78*** 1.69*** 1.57*** 1.25
  Lower-body limitations 1.89*** 1.94*** 1.97*** 1.55*** 1.48** 1.21
Higher functional limitations 2.93*** 2.96*** 2.69*** 1.63** 1.54** 1.29
Overall function
 60–69 years
  ADL disabilities 46.60*** 51.62*** 49.81*** 8.01*** 8.16*** 8.56***
  IADL disabilities 1.91*** 1.89*** 1.80*** 1.72*** 1.76*** 1.70***
  Upper-body limitations 2.64*** 2.66*** 2.77*** 1.76*** 1.87*** 1.93***
  Lower-body limitations 2.59*** 2.56*** 2.71*** 2.15*** 2.22*** 2.25***
  Higher functional limitations 2.73*** 2.70*** 3.29*** 2.18*** 2.29*** 2.64***
 70–79 years       
  ADL disabilities 14.29*** 14.48*** 18.88*** 4.04*** 4.02*** 3.15*
  IADL disabilities 1.58** 1.71*** 1.60** 1.83** 1.70** 1.44
  Upper-body limitations 2.23*** 2.20*** 2.19*** 2.02*** 2.06*** 1.58**
  Lower-body limitations 1.70** 1.73*** 1.58** 2.17*** 2.23*** 1.63**
  Higher functional limitations 1.72** 1.65** 1.68** 1.85*** 1.83*** 1.42*
  1. Notes: Model 1 adjusted for age, height, and weight; Model 2 adjusted for age, height, weight, education groups, and geographic region; Model 3 adjusted for age, height, weight, education groups, and geographic region, cognitive problems, diabetes, and hypertension; OR Odd ratio, ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001