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Table 1 Characteristics of elderly adults with and without mood disorder. Values are counts (percentages) unless stated otherwise

From: Association between health behaviors and mood disorders among the elderly: a community-based cohort study

Variable Total Mood disorder χ2 p-value
No Yesa
Age (n = 315,045)        51.74 .001
 65–69 78,764 (25.0) 71,099 (22.6) 7665 (2.4)   
 70–74 81,746 (25.9) 73,729 (23.4) 8017 (2.5)   
 75–79 75,425 (23.9) 68,253 (21.7) 7172 (2.3)   
 80–84 51,844 (16.5) 47,243 (15) 4601 (1.5)   
  > 85 27,266 (8.7) 24,859 (7.9) 2407 (0.8)   
Education (n = 306,895)        284.40 .001
 Illiterate 17,036 (5.4) 15,116 (4.8) 1920 (0.6)   
 Self-taught 6848 (2.2) 6156 (2) 692 (0.2)   
 Elementary school 74,255 (23.6) 66,635 (21.2) 7620 (2.4)   
 Junior high school 46,211 (14.7) 41,649 (13.2) 4562 (1.4)   
 Senior high school 72,394 (23.0) 65,553 (20.8) 6841 (2.2)   
 Vocational school 27,442 (8.7) 25,017 (7.9) 2425 (0.8)   
 University 62,709 (19.9) 57,517 (18.3) 5192 (1.6)   
 Master’s degree and above 8150 (2.6) 7540 (2.4) 610 (0.2)   
Gender (n = 315,045)        1285.19 .001
 Male 149,920 (47.6) 132,766 (42.1) 17,154 (5.4)   
 Female 165,125 (52.4) 152,417 (48.4) 12,708 (4)   
Marital status (n = 315,045)        144.45 .001
 Unmarried 14,182 (4.5) 12,877 (4.1) 1305 (0.4)   
 Cohabitating 1357 (0.4) 1224 (0.4) 133 (0)   
 Married–living together 233,800 (74.2) 212,377 (67.4) 21,423 (6.8)   
 Married–living separately 6581 (2.1) 5949 (1.9) 632 (0.2)   
 Divorced 4059 (1.3) 3634 (1.2) 425 (0.1)   
 Widowed 55,066 (17.5) 49,122 (15.6) 5944 (1.9)   
Living alone (n = 315,045)        9.40 .002
 Yes 20,987 (6.7) 18,872 (6) 2115 (0.7)   
 No 294,058 (93.3) 266,311 (84.5) 27,747 (8.8)   
Drinking milk (n = 273,621)        146.69 .001
 Yes 142,323 (52.0) 129,510 (47.3) 12,813 (4.7)   
 No 131,298 (48.0) 117,680 (43.0) 13,618 (5.0)   
Eating at least three servings of vegetables and two of fruits (n = 273,343)        1428.72 .001
 Yes 211,346 (77.3) 193,371 (70.7) 17,975 (6.6)   
 No 61,997 (22.7) 53,562 (19.6) 8435 (3.1)   
Long-term medication (n = 315,045)        1140.09 .001
 Yes 234,157 (74.3) 209,537 (66.5) 24,620 (7.8)   
 No 80,888 (25.7) 75,646 (24.0) 5242 (1.7)   
Smoking status (n = 309,030)        9.66 .008
 Non-smoking 292,405 (94.6) 264,580 (85.6) 27,825 (9.0)   
 Daily smoking 3965 (1.3) 3561 (1.2) 404 (0.1)   
 Smoking after a meal 12,660 (4.1) 11,547 (3.7) 1113 (0.4)   
Alcohol frequency (n = 314,285)        121.67 .001
 Non-drinking 253,083 (80.5) 228,385 (72.7) 24,698 (7.9)   
 Daily drinking 6743 (2.2) 6166 (2.0) 577 (0.2)   
 Occasional drinking 54,459 (17.3) 49,952 (15.9) 4507 (1.4)   
The frequency of physical activity (n = 261,870)        46.38 .001
 Never 30,683 (11.8) 27,531 (4.9) 3152 (6.9)   
 Three to five times per week 142,049 (54.2) 129,181 (30.7) 12,868 (23.5)   
 Occasionally 89,138 (34) 80,703 (16.2) 8435 (17.8)   
Body Mass Index (n = 313,262)        33.36 .001
  < 18.5 13,006 (4.2) 11,733 (3.7) 1273 (0.4)   
 18.5–23.9 145,737 (46.5) 131,764 (42.1) 13,973 (4.5)   
 24.0–26.9 98,629 (31.5) 89,651 (28.6) 8978 (2.9)   
 27.0–29.9 40,893 (13) 36,990 (11.8) 3903 (1.2)   
 30.0–34.9 13,489 (4.3) 12,092 (3.9) 1397 (0.4)   
  ≥ 35.0 1508 (0.5) 1352 (0.49) 156 (0.01)   
Number of chronic diseases (n = 315,018)        15.41 .118
 0 93,010 (29.5) 84,423 (26.8) 8587 (2.7)   
 1 136,210 (43.2) 123,289 (39.1) 12,921 (4.1)   
 2 60,962 (19.4) 55,014 (17.5) 5948 (1.9)   
 3 19,629 (6.2) 17,718 (5.6) 1911 (0.6)   
 4 4295 (1.4) 3891 (1.2) 404 (0.1)   
  ≥ 5 912 (0.3) 822 (0.2) 90 (0.1)   
  1. aThe BSRS-5 scores larger than 5 are defined as participants with mood disorder
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