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Table 3 Factors associated to perceived discrimination among older adults (ELSI-Brazil/2015–2016)

From: Perceived discrimination among older adults living in urban and rural areas in Brazil: a national study (ELSI-Brazil)

   Unadjusted2 Adjusted3
N1 PR 95% CI PR 95%CI
Place of residence (reference: rural) 192     
Urban 1425 1.44 (1.13–1.84) 1.34 (1.06–1.69)
Aged (reference: 50–59 years) 787     
60–69 years 491 0.95 (0.84–1.07) 1.00 (0.88–1.14)
70–79 years 257 0.74 (0.62–0.88) 0.82 (0.68–1.00)
80+ years 82 0.48 (0.35–0.65) 0.52 (0.38–0.72)
Sex (reference: female) 950     
Male 667 0.89 (0.79–1.01) 1.08 (0.94–1.24)
Ethno racial self-classification (reference: white) 526     
Black 189 1.54 (1.25–1.89) 1.49 (1.25–1.78)
Brown 772 1.24 (1.04–1.48) 1.20 (1.03–1.41)
Yellow / Indigenous 77 1.84 (1.41–2.40) 1.57 (1.16–2.14)
Educational attainment (reference: < 4 years) 523     
4–7 years 504 1.24 (1.10–1.40) 1.17 (1.03–1.32)
8+ years 579 1.25 (1.06–1.47) 1.24 (1.05–1.46)
Household wealth (reference: 3 lowest quartile) 1302     
Highest household wealth (top quartile) 304 0.86 (0.73–1.02) 0.87 (0.74–1.03)
Health status (reference: few health problems)4 338     
Some health problems 540 1.66 (1.40–1.97) 1.65 (1.39–1.96)
Many health problems 739 2.46 (2.09–2.89) 2.40 (2.02–2.85)
Neighborhood social environment (reference: low social trust) 495     
Medium social trust 479 0.75 (0.65–0.86) 0.77 (0.66–0.89)
High social trust 629 0.49 (0.42–0.56) 0.54 (0.47–0.62)
  1. PR: prevalence ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval. 1Number of participants who reported perceived discrimination. 2Univariate analyses; 3Multivariate analyses. 4Composite measure obtained through principal components analysis, from the following variables: self-rated health, number of the last 30 days spent in poor mental and/or physical health, and history of medical diagnosis from a list of 12 prevalent chronic diseases/conditions. Results took into account complex sample design and sample weights