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Table 3 Odds of cognitive impairment according to continuous metabolic parameters

From: Associations of the metabolic syndrome and its components with cognitive impairment in older adults

  Quartiles p trend Continuous parameters
1 2 3 4 OR (95% CI) per unit increment p-value
Body mass index
 Cut-point (kg/m2) ≤24.15 24.16–26.70 26.71–29.35 ≥29.36    
 n with cognitive impairment / N total 19 / 51 18 / 51 18 / 50 17 / 50    
 Model 1 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.96 (0.41, 2.25) 1.17 (0.50, 2.75) 1.02 (0.43, 2.41) 0.971 0.99 (0.92, 1.06) 0.772
 Model 2 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.06 (0.41, 2.70) 1.11 (0.43, 2.87) 0.64 (0.23, 1.80) 0.707 0.95 (0.88, 1.03) 0.205
 Model 3 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.98 (0.37, 2.64) 1.18 (0.44, 3.13) 0.59 (0.20, 1.75) 0.602 0.95 (0.88, 1.03) 0.238
Triglycerides
 Cut-point (mmol/L) ≤1.04 1.05–1.31 1.32–1.79 ≥1.80    
 n with cognitive impairment / N total 17 / 53 14 / 49 23 / 50 18 / 50    
 Model 1 OR (95% CI)a 1.00 (Reference) 0.92 (0.38, 2.24) 2.20 (0.94, 5.19) 1.58 (0.66, 3.77) 0.167 1.11 (0.93, 1.32) 0.241
 Model 2 OR (95% CI)a 1.00 (Reference) 1.07 (0.39, 2.91) 2.22 (0.82, 5.98) 0.91 (0.31, 2.73) 0.259 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 0.835
 Model 3 OR (95% CI)a 1.00 (Reference) 1.08 (0.38, 3.07) 2.08 (0.75, 5.76) 0.73 (0.23, 2.31) 0.237 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 0.791
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
 Cut-point (mmol/L) ≤1.01 1.02–1.27 1.28–1.55 ≥1.56    
 n with cognitive impairment / N total 28 / 54 10 / 52 21 / 52 13 / 44    
 Model 1 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.23 (0.09, 0.57) 0.65 (0.29, 1.48) 0.28 (0.11, 0.71) 0.004 0.37 (0.18, 0.80) 0.011
 Model 2 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.25 (0.09, 0.65) 0.57 (0.22, 1.44) 0.26 (0.09, 0.80) 0.017 0.39 (0.17, 0.92) 0.031
 Model 3 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.28 (0.10, 0.75) 0.53 (0.20, 1.41) 0.22 (0.07, 0.70) 0.023 0.39 (0.16, 0.94) 0.036
Glucose
 Cut-point (mmol/L) ≤5.27 5.28–5.77 5.78–6.49 ≥6.50    
 n with cognitive impairment / N total 21 / 54 14 / 48 14 / 52 23 / 48    
 Model 1 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.56 (0.23, 1.35) 0.56 (0.24, 1.33) 1.62 (0.71, 3.70) 0.053 1.19 (0.99, 1.43) 0.068
 Model 2 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.66 (0.26, 1.66) 0.42 (0.16, 1.10) 1.58 (0.61, 4.08) 0.062 1.19 (0.97, 1.46) 0.094
 Model 3 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.62 (0.23, 1.66) 0.45 (0.16, 1.21) 1.84 (0.69, 4.91) 0.045 1.21 (0.97, 1.51) 0.086
HbA1c
 Cut-point (mmol/mol) ≤35.5 35.6–38.8 38.9–42.1 ≥42.2    
 n with cognitive impairment / N total 15 / 46 14 / 37 12 / 38 17 / 34    
 Model 1 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.26 (0.49, 3.27) 0.65 (0.24, 1.75) 2.15 (0.83, 5.54) 0.142 1.03 (0.99, 1.08) 0.137
 Model 2 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.24 (0.44, 3.46) 0.54 (0.18, 1.63) 1.71 (0.61, 4.80) 0.235 1.03 (0.99, 1.08)b 0.137
 Model 3 OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.75 (0.24, 2.39) 0.55 (0.18, 1.73) 1.47 (0.49, 4.36) 0.420 1.04 (0.99, 1.09)b 0.115
  1. Results shown for logistic regression analyses with outcome cognitive impairment. p-value for trend (2-sided) based on the respective median within quartiles, used as a continuous variable, and analyzed using the Wald chi2 statistic. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio
  2. aresults largely unchanged following exclusion of N = 1 outlier with high TG levels (28.9 mmol/L)
  3. bin these models, HDL-C was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (Model 2: OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09, 0.79, p = 0.016; Model 3: OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09, 0.83, p = 0.022; for TG and BMI, all p > 0.05 in these models)
  4. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, smoking
  5. Model 2: Model 1 + TG quartiles, HDL-C quartiles, BMI quartiles, glucose quartiles (for quartile analyses) or Model 1 + TG, HDL-C, BMI and glucose (for continuous parameters) (analysis N = 202), or for HbA1c: Model 1 + TG quartiles, HDL-C quartiles, BMI quartiles (for HbA1c quartile analyses) or Model 1 + TG, HDL-C and BMI (for analysis of HbA1c as continuous parameter) (analysis N = 155)
  6. Model 3: Model 2 + CHD, TIA, stroke