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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of caregivers and persons with dementia in the derivation sample (n = 300), and the association with high caregiver grief a

From: Development and validation of a simple screening tool for caregiver grief in dementia caregiving

Variable Overall sample (n = 300) High grief a (n = 54) Average or low grief (n = 246) P value b
Variables related to caregivers
 Age, mean (SD) 52.1 (11.0) 55.6 (12.3) 51.4 (10.5) 0.010
 Male gender, n (%) 120 (40.0) 20 (37.0) 100 (40.7) 0.624
Ethnicity, n (%) 0.006
 Chinese 247 (82.3) 37 (68.5) 210 (85.4)  
 Malay 25 (8.3) 10 (18.5) 15 (6.1)  
 Indian/Eurasian/Others 28 (9.3) 7 (13.0) 21 (8.5)  
Marital status, n (%) 0.020
 Married 203 (67.7) 44 (81.5) 159 (64.6)  
 Single 76 (25.3) 6 (11.1) 70 (28.5)  
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 21 (7.0) 4 (7.4) 17 (6.9)  
Employment status, n (%) 0.013
 Working full-time 179 (59.7) 24 (44.4) 155 (63.0)  
 Working part-time 36 (12.0) 6 (11.1) 30 (12.2)  
 Not working 85 (28.3) 24 (44.4) 61 (24.8)  
Highest education, n (%)     0.034
 Secondary or below 190 (63.3) 41 (75.9) 149 (60.6)  
 Tertiary 110 (36.7) 13 (24.1) 97 (39.4)  
Relationship with the PWD, n (%) < 0.001
 Child 265 (88.3) 36 (66.7) 229 (93.1)  
 Spouse 35 (11.7) 18 (33.3) 17 (6.9)  
 Staying with the PWD, n (%) 199 (66.3) 42 (77.8) 157 (63.8) 0.049
 Duration of caregiving in years, mean (SD) 6.6 (6.7) 5.5 (6.1) 6.8 (6.8) 0.197
 Providing daily caregiving, n (%) 220 (73.3) 49 (90.7) 171 (69.5) 0.001
 Primary caregiving role, n (%) 218 (72.7) 47 (87.0) 171 (69.5) 0.009
Variables related to PWD
 Age, mean (SD) 79.5 (8.1) 77.5 (8.6) 79.9 (8.0) 0.051
 Male gender, n (%) 86 (28.7) 21 (38.9) 65 (26.4) 0.067
 Duration of dementia diagnosis in years, mean (SD) 4.5 (3.5) 4.0 (2.9) 4.6 (3.6) 0.222
 Diagnosis of dementia before 65 years old, n (%) 34 (11.3) 9 (16.7) 25 (10.2) 0.172
 Stage of dementia, n (%) 0.001
 Mild 49 (16.3) 2 (3.7) 47 (19.1)  
 Moderate 127 (42.3) 18 (33.3) 109 (44.3)  
 Severe 124 (41.3) 34 (63.0) 90 (36.6)  
Severe behavioral problem, n (%) 18 (6.0) 10 (18.5) 8 (3.3) < 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, PWD persons with dementia, MM-CGI Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory
  2. aHigh caregiver grief was defined as MMCGI> 175
  3. bTest of difference between high versus average or low grief: chi-square test for categorical variables and two-sample T-test for continuous variables. Bold-faced p values are ≤0.05