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Table 1 Characteristics of robust, prefrail and frail participants

From: Cognitive function in Prefrail and frail community-dwelling older adults in China

  Robust Prefrail Frail
Number (%) 1798(56.2) 1087(33.9) 317(9.9)
Age (years) 69.25 ± 6.71 70.36 ± 7.00* 74.39 ± 7.83*Δ
Gender (male, %) 798(44.4) 468(43.1) 140(44.2)
Area (rural, %) 551(30.6) 345(31.7) 154(48.6)*Δ
Income (yuan)/month 2463.04 ± 1864.63 2303.35 ± 1576.80 1829.18 ± 1710.89*Δ
BMI (kg/m2) 24.31 ± 3.16 23.66 ± 3.56* 22.67 ± 3.98*Δ
WHR 0.8720 ± 0.0636 0.8724 ± 0.0585 0.8718 ± 0.0695
Walking speed (m/s) 1.01 ± 0.32 0.77 ± 0.34* 0.60 ± 0.21*Δ
ADL 7.01 ± 0.10 7.05 ± 0.42* 7.38 ± 1.15*Δ
IADL 7.15 ± 0.78 7.34 ± 1.27* 8.76 ± 2.97*Δ
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, WHR waist hip ratio, ADL activities of daily living, IADL instrumental activities of daily living
  2. *P < 0.05, compared to robust group; ΔP < 0.05, compared to prefrail group