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Table 3 Progression of complexity of secondary tasks by levels of difficulty

From: A randomized controlled trial protocol to test the efficacy of a dual-task multicomponent exercise program in the attenuation of frailty in long-term nursing home residents: Aging-ONDUAL-TASK study

Main cognitive function Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
Attention Divided (cognitive) CATEGORIES:Buildings/ Dairy products/ colors The participant will repeat a specific word from a certain category (e.g house) every time the instructor says it The participant will raise a hand every time the instructor says a specific word from a certain category or when a green card is presented The participant will raise a hand every time the instructor says two specific words from certain categories or when a green card is presented The participant will raise a hand every time the instructor says two specific words from certain categories or when a green card is presented or when the instructor claps The participant will raise a hand and repeat the word every time the instructor says two specific words from certain categories or when a green card is presented or when the instructor claps
Divided (physical) Participants will carry out the physical task whilst maintaining a cup with a ball upright to avoid the ball from falling
Sustained Naming months of the year forward Naming months of the year forward starting from a random month Naming even or odd months of the year forward Naming months of the year backwards Naming months of the year backwards starting from a random month
Shifting Participants will be asked to shift focus from a cognitive task to another on some of the dual tasks
Semantic fluency Naming colors/days of the week/names Naming members of the family/clothes Naming professions Naming cooking instruments or general tools Naming fish, dog or tree types
Inhibition If the instructor says YES they respond NO and viceversa Every time the instructor says HEADS they have to answer TAILS and viceversa and Previous entry If a green card is presented they have to say RED and when a red card is presented they have to say GREEN Level 2 and level 3 instructions altogether If the word RED is presented in a green color they have to say GREEN and vice versa and when the word YES in red color or NO in green color, they have to name the color.
Problem solving (calculus) Counting by twos starting from a number ≥ 30 Counting by threes from a number ≥ 50 Substracting by twos from a number ≥ 30 Substracting by threes from a number ≥ 50 Substracting by fours from a number ≥ 100
Movement coordination Inherent to the muticomponent exercise program
Movement learning and sequencing