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Table 2 Features of participants with and without sarcopenia

From: Association between activity energy expenditure and peak oxygen consumption with sarcopenia

  Women   Men  
Without sarcopenia With sarcopenia p Without sarcopenia With sarcopenia p
Sarcopenia defined as an appendicular lean body mass index cutoff point 5.6 for women and 7.5 for men and a handgrip z score < − 1
 Number of participants 101 5   75 11  
 Total physical activity (MET-minutes/week) c 742 (330–1589)b 495 (438–1836) NS 1244 (693–2139) 594 (258–1836) NS
 Peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) d 14.4 ± 5.6a 7.0 ± 2.2 < 0.01 22.0 ± 8.3 15.6 ± 3.7 0.02
 Peak respiratory exchange ratio (VCO2/VO2) d 1.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 NS 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 NS
 Peak workload (Watt) d 93.2 ± 47.2 38.4 ± 9.8 0.01 171.1 ± 79.3 103.0 ± 56.5 < 0.01
 Gross muscle efficiency (%)d 23.5 ± 7.7 23.0 ± 6.9 NS 23.0 ± 3.8 21.8 ± 6.7 NS
 Physical activity level (Total/Resting energy expenditure) e 1.47 ± 0.22 1.33 ± 0.12 NS 1.77 ± 0.38 1.57 ± 0.18 NS
 Activity energy expenditure (Kcal/day) e 445 (282–646) 221 (149–331) 0.03 926 (590–1533) 649 (447–706) 0.04
Sarcopenia defined as an appendicular lean body mass index cutoff point 5.6 for women and 7.5 for men
 Number of participants 88 18   58 28  
 Total physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 731 (325–1570)b 808 (372–2319) NS 1152 (678–2333) 1248 (454–1981) NS
 Peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) 15.2 ± 5.5 8.8 ± 3.5 < 0.01 24.1 ± 7.7 15.1 ± 5.2 < 0.01
 Peak respiratory exchange ratio (VCO2/VO2) 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.2 NS 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 NS
 Peak workload (Watt) 100.5 ± 44.9 42.1 ± 25.2 < 0.01 194.6 ± 70.2 95.8 ± 53.3 < 0.01
 Gross muscle efficiency (%) 24.1 ± 7.5 19.9 ± 7.2 0.03 23.5 ± 3.5 21.4 ± 5.3 0.03
 Physical activity level (Total/Resting energy expenditure) 1.5 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2 NS 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.3 NS
 Activity energy expenditure (Kcal/day) 461 (285–742) 304 (221–416) < 0.01 1008 (635–1619) 671 (541–811) < 0.01
Sarcopenia defined as a z score for handgrip strength <= − 1
 Number of participants 61 45   63 23  
 Total physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 742 (264–1928) 720 (400–1589) NS 1547 (738–2346) 693 (330–1695) < 0.01
 Peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) 12.7 ± 5.4 16.0 ± 5.6 < 0.01 22.6 ± 8.4 17.4 ± 6.2 < 0.01
 Peak respiratory exchange ratio (VCO2/VO2) 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 NS 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.2 NS
 Peak workload (Watt) 77.4 ± 45.0 108.4 ± 45.5 < 0.01 175.9 ± 78.6 125.4 ± 72.6 < 0.01
 Gross muscle efficiency (%) 22.3 ± 8.4 24.9 ± 6.2 NS 23.3 ± 3.7 21.7 ± 5.4 NS
 Physical activity level (Total/Resting energy expenditure) 1.4 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.3 NS 1.8 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.3 0.02
 Activity energy expenditure (Kcal/day) 367 (250–555) 517 (295–754) NS 951 (613–1619) 665 (448–943) 0.01
  1. a= mean ± standard deviation b = median (interquartile range)
  2. c= International physical activity questionnaire. d= Exercise calorimetry. e = 72 h actigraph