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Table 1 Features of studied participants

From: Association between activity energy expenditure and peak oxygen consumption with sarcopenia

  Young women (A) (n = 65) Old women (B) (n = 41) Young men (C) (n = 58) Old men (D) (n = 28) Significant differences
Demographic and clinical data
 Age (years) 36.2 ± 9.0a 70.9 ± 5.2 36.2 ± 7.7 69.1 ± 7.1  
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.9 ± 1.8 29.0 ± 4.4 29.8 ± 2.0 27.5 ± 3.1 C vs D
 Waist circumference (cm) 90.0 ± 5.7 99.6 ± 11.2 100.9 ± 6.0 98.8 ± 9.0 A vs B C D
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 115.5 ± 10.7 128.5 ± 14.3 122.8 ± 9.6 131.8 ± 16.5 A vs C D C vs D
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 75.1 ± 8.7 71.5 ± 10.0 75.2 ± 7.7 82.1 ± 11.0 NS
 Handgrip strength (kg) 25.0 ± 4.4 19.4 ± 4.1 42.3 ± 7.6 28.5 ± 5.6 All groups different
 Handgrip strength (z score) 0.88 ± 1.60 − 0.35 ± 0.80 0.17 ± 1.57 −0.79 ± 1.18 A vs D C vs D
Body composition (DEXA)
 Total fat free mass (kg) 38.48 ± 2.92 35.46 ± 4.07 56.40 ± 5.96 47.97 ± 6.40 All groups different
 Total fat mass (kg) 30.99 ± 3.76 30.24 ± 8.07 29.84 ± 4.76 24.04 ± 5.40 D vs A B C
 Appendicular fat free mass (kg) 16.00 ± 1.52 14.10 ± 2.24 24.86 ± 2.97 19.61 ± 3.28 All groups different
 Appendicular fat free mass index (kg/m2) 6.44 ± 0.50 6.04 ± 0.92 8.33 ± 0.84 7.14 ± 0.93 All groups different
 Appendicular fat mass (kg) 13.30 ± 2.34 12.29 ± 3.42 10.51 ± 2.18 7.92 ± 1.78 A vs C D B vs C D C vs D
 Percentage of skeletal muscle mass (%) 25.59 ± 1.88 22.96 ± 2.03 32.59 ± 2.39 29.53 ± 1.80 All groups different
 Appendicular fat free mass (z score) 0.66 ± 0.80 0.43 ± 1.15 0.76 ± 0.90 − 0.02 ± 1.14 D vs A C
 Percentage of skeletal muscle mass (z score) −0.38 ± 0.70 −0.12 ± 0.70 −0.33 ± 0.79 −0.33 ± 0.51 D vs A
International physical activity questionnaire
 Total physical activity (MET-minutes/week) 630 (264–1252)b 1155 (531–2346) 1173 (626–1944) 1179 (544–2071) A vs B C D
Exercise calorimetry
 Peak oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) 17.6 ± 4.2 8.5 ± 2.3 25.6 ± 5.8 12.0 ± 3.2 All groups different
 Peak respiratory exchange ratio (VCO2/VO2) 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 NS
 Peak workload (Watt) 121.9 ± 30.5 41.0 ± 18.6 208.9 ± 50.3 66.1 ± 21.4 All groups different
 Gross muscle efficiency (%) 26.0 ± 6.3 19.3 ± 7.8 24.4 ± 3.2 19.5 ± 4.2 D vs  A C
Seventy two hours actigraphy
 Physical activity level (Total/Resting energy expenditure) 1.51 ± 0.23 1.39 ± 0.17 1.83 ± 0.41 1.59 ± 0.16 A vs C D B vs C D C vs D
 Activity energy expenditure (Kcal/day) 530 (380–837) 287 (211–380) 1047 (679–1702) 653 (541–695) A vs B C B vs C D C vs D
  1. a= mean ± standard deviation b = median (interquartile range)