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Table 4 Cognitive tests in the EMIF-AD 90+ Study

From: Resilience to cognitive impairment in the oldest-old: design of the EMIF-AD 90+ study

Cognitive test Cognitive domain Site
CERAD 10 words test [115]
 Immediate recall
 Delayed recall after 10 min
Memory Ba
Logical Memory test [116]
 Immediate recall
 Delayed recall after 20–30 min
Memory A
Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [117]
 Immediate recall
 Delayed recall after 20 min
Memory M
Rey Complex Figure Test [118]
 Delayed copy after 3 min
Visuoconstructive skills
WAIS-III Digit span forward and backward [119, 120] Executive functioning B
Animal (2 min) and Letter fluency (1 min per letterb) [121] Executive functioning B
Clock Drawing Testc [122] Executive functioning
Visuospatial functioning
Graded Naming Test [123] Object-naming ability B
Trail Making Test A and B [124] Information processing speed
Visual attention
Task switching
WAIS-R Digit Symbol Substitution Test [125] Perceptual-motor speed
Incidental learning
Computerised Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated battery [126] Paired associate learning
Spatial-working memory
Reaction time
National Adult Reading Test [127] Pre-morbid IQ B
Visual Association Test [128] Visuospatial association learning A
Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised battery [129] Attention/orientation
Verbal fluency
Visuospatial abilities
  1. A administered only in Amsterdam, B administered in Amsterdam and Manchester, CERAD Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease, M administered only in Manchester, min minute (s), WAIS (−R) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (-Revised)
  2. aIn Manchester only in the cognitively normal subjects. bIn Amsterdam using the letters D, A and T and in Manchester the letters F, A, and S. cThe subject will be asked to draw a clock showing the time “ten after eleven”. In total 14 points can be scored based on the presence and sequencing of the numbers and the positioning of the two hands