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Table 1 Caregiver and care-receiver characteristics at baseline and follow-up (16 months)

From: Health and frailty among older spousal caregivers: an observational cohort study in Belgium

  Baseline Follow-up P-value
Caregiver N = 78 N = 78  
 Sex, female, n (%) 42 (53.8) 42 (53.8)  
 Age, years, median [P25-P75] 80.0 [77.0–85.0] 81.0 [78.0–86.0]  
 Risk of depressiona, n (%) 25 (32.1) 23 (29.5) 0.84
 Use of anti-depressive medication, n (%) 20 (25.6) 21 (26.9) 1.00
 Use of anxiolytic medication, n (%) 20 (25.6) 30 (38.5) 0.03
 Burdenb, median [P25-P75] 33.0 [23.3–42.8] 29.0 [22.5–39.0] 0.72
 High self-esteem c, n (%) 36 (70.6) 38 (74.5) 0.66
 Number of medications, median [P25-P75] 3.0 [2.0–5.0] 4.5 [2.0–7.0] < 0.01
 SPPBd, median [P25-P75] 9.0[6.0–10.3] 9.0 [7.0–10.3] 0.55
 Frailty (Fried), median [P25-P75] 1.0[0.0–2.0] 1.0 [1.0–2.0] 0.02
 Nutrition (MNAd), median [P25-P75] 12.0 [10.0–14.0] 12 [10.8–13.3] 0.38
 Cognitione, n (%) 40 (51.3) 48 (61.5) 0.14
Care-receiver N = 51 N = 51  
 Katz index-24, median [P25-P75] 14 [8.0–17.0] 14 [8.5–18.0] < 0.01
 Global deterioration scale, median [P25-P75] 4 [3–5] 4 [3–5] < 0.01
 Neuropsychiatric Index, median [P25-P75] 13 [8–23] 19 [11–24] 0.01
  1. Caregivers’ variables: a GDS > 5/15, b Zarit Burden Interview-22 (N = 51), c Caregiver Reaction Assessment-self-esteem dimension, d Short Physical Performance Battery, d Mini Nutritional Assessment-14, e pathologic clock drawing test
  2. All analyses were performed with the available data of the 78 followed caregivers and 51 care-receivers still living at home at follow-up. Burden and self-esteem were assessed among the 51 caregivers still giving care at follow-up
  3. Regarding the care-receiver, small but statistically significant changes were observed, all consistent with a degradation of health. Wilcoxon signed rank test with continuity correction, McNemar’s chi-squared test with continuity correction