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Table 2 Association of gout and other potential risk factors with incident dementia in adults 65 years or older

From: Gout and dementia in the elderly: a cohort study of Medicare claims

  Multivariable-adjusted (Model 1)a Multivariable-adjusted
(Model 2)a
Multivariable-adjusted
(Model 3)a
HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
Age (in years)
 65 - < 75 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 75 - < 85 3.53 (3.48, 3.58) < 0.0001 3.49 (3.44, 3.54) < 0.0001 3.35 (3.30, 3.40) < 0.0001
  ≥ 85 7.81 (7.68, 7.95) < 0.0001 7.75 (7.62, 7.88) < 0.0001 6.80 (6.68, 6.92) < 0.0001
Sex
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 1.34 (1.32, 1.36) < 0.0001 1.33 (1.31, 1.34) < 0.0001 1.26 (1.25, 1.28) < 0.0001
Race
 White Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Black 1.29 (1.26, 1.32) < 0.0001 1.33 (1.30, 1.35) < 0.0001 1.24 (1.22, 1.27) < 0.0001
 Other 0.87 (0.85, 0.89) < 0.0001 0.89 (0.87, 0.92) < 0.0001 0.85 (0.82, 0.87) < 0.0001
Charlson-Romano score, per unit change 1.16 (1.15, 1.16) < 0.0001 N/A   N/A  
Charlson-Romano score
 0 N/A   Ref   N/A  
 1    1.72 (1.68, 1.75) < 0.0001   
  ≥ 2    2.17 (2.14, 2.19) < 0.0001   
Gout 1.15 (1.12, 1.18) < 0.0001 1.17 (1.14, 1.20) < 0.0001 1.17 (1.14, 1.21) < 0.0001
  1. N/A not applicable, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref referent category
  2. Bold represents statistical significance, with a P-value < 0.05
  3. aModel 1 included Charlson-Romano score as a continuous variable; Model 2 replaced it with categorized Charlson-Romano score; and Model 3 replaced it with each of the 17 Charlson-Romano comorbidities plus hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. All models were also adjusted for medications for cardiovascular diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, ACE-inhibitors) and for urate-lowering therapies for gout (allopurinol, febuxostat)