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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of beneficiaries who developed incident dementiaa

From: Gout and dementia in the elderly: a cohort study of Medicare claims

  All beneficiaries Incident Dementiaa during the follow-up p-value
No Yes
Total, N (beneficiaries) 1,712,821 1,601,165 111,656b N/A
Age, mean (SD) 75.2 (7.5) 74.9 (7.5) 80.0 (7.1) < 0.0001
Sex, N (%)     < 0.0001
 Male 729,781 (42.6%) 693,059 (43.3%) 36,722 (32.9%)  
 Female 983,040 (57.4%) 908,106 (56.7%) 74,934 (67.1%)  
Race/Ethnicity, N (%)     < 0.0001
 White 1,476,044 (86.2%) 1,380,894 (86.2%) 95,150 (85.2%)  
  Black 139,833 (8.2%) 128,824 (8.0%) 11,009 (9.9%)  
 Other/unknown 96,944 (5.7%) 91,447 (5.7%) 5497 (4.9%)  
Charlson-Romano score, mean (SD) 1.56 (2.36) 1.52 (2.34) 2.18 (2.49) < 0.0001
Charlson-Romano score     < 0.0001
 0 912,029 (53.2%) 870,890 (54.4%) 41,139 (36.8%)  
 1 174,091 (10.2%) 159,811 (10.0%) 14,280 (12.8%)  
  ≥ 2 626,701 (36.6%) 570,464 (35.6%) 56,237 (50.4%)  
Charlson-Romano comorbidities
 Myocardial Infarction 67,609 (3.9%) 62,029 (3.9%) 5580 (5.0%) < 0.0001
 Heart Failure 198,607 (11.6%) 180,109 (11.2%) 18,498 (16.6%) < 0.0001
 Peripheral vascular disease 164,078 (9.6%) 147,448 (9.2%) 16,630 (14.9%) < 0.0001
 Cerebrovascular disease 162,203 (9.5%) 142,965 (8.9%) 19,238 (17.2%) < 0.0001
 Dementia 58,582 (3.4%) 47,204 (2.9%) 11,378 (10.2%) < 0.0001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 266,474 (15.6%) 245,787 (15.4%) 20,687 (18.5%) < 0.0001
 Connective tissue disease 47,610 (2.8%) 43,566 (2.7%) 4044 (3.6%) < 0.0001
 Peptic ulcer disease 32,015 (1.9%) 28,853 (1.8%) 3162 (2.8%) < 0.0001
 Mild liver disease 8437 (0.49%) 7918 (0.49%) 519 (0.46%) 0.17
 Diabetes 315,236 (18.4%) 289,481 (18.1%) 25,755 (23.1%) < 0.0001
 Diabetes with end organ damage 92,786 (5.4%) 84,100 (5.3%) 8686 (7.8%) < 0.0001
 Hemiplegia 13,668 (0.80%) 11,972 (0.75%) 1696 (1.5%) < 0.0001
 Renal failure/disease 58,438 (3.4%) 53,802 (3.4%) 4636 (4.2%) < 0.0001
 Any tumor, leukemia, or lymphoma 172,705 (10.1%) 160,676 (10.0%) 12,029 (10.8%) < 0.0001
 Moderate or severe liver disease 1969 (0.11%) 1852 (0.12%) 117 (0.10%) 0.30
 Metastatic cancer 17,879 (1.0%) 17,113 (1.1%) 766 (0.69%) < 0.0001
 AIDS 546 (0.03%) 519 (0.03%) 27 (0.02%) 0.14
Hypertension 823,180 (48.1%) 754,449 (47.1%) 68,731 (61.6%) < 0.0001
Hyperlipidemia 597,299 (34.9%) 554,334 (34.6%) 42,965 (38.5%) < 0.0001
Coronary artery disease 299,331 (17.5%) 273,719 (17.1%) 25,612 (22.9%) < 0.0001
  1. SD standard deviation, N/A not applicable
  2. Bold represents statistical significance, with a P-value < 0.05
  3. aIncident dementia defined as the occurrence of two claims at least four-weeks apart with ICD-9-CM codes, 290.xx, 294.1x, or 331.2, with baseline 365 days without any claim for dementia
  4. bMet eligibility criteria and did not have dementia in the baseline 365-day period