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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants according to depressive symptoms at baseline

From: Serum cystatin C, impaired kidney function, and geriatric depressive symptoms among older people living in a rural area: a population-based study

Characteristics Total sample Depressive symptoms
(n = 1440) No (n = 1124) Yes (n = 316) p-value
Female, n (%) 864 (60.0) 650 (75.2) 214 (24.8) 0.002
Age (years), mean (SD) 68.5 (4.9) 68.3 (4.9) 69.4 (5.1) 0.001
Education (years), mean (SD) 3.9 (3.4) 4.0 (3.4) 3.7 (3.3) 0.180
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 26.4 (8.1) 26.5 (8.9) 26.2 (4.2) 0.599
Current smokinga, n (%) 206 (14.3) 162 (14.4) 44 (13.9) 0.970
Alcohol consumptiona, n (%) 299 (20.8) 247 (22.0) 52 (16.5) 0.018
Hypertension, n (%) 768 (53.3) 573 (51.0) 195 (61.7) 0.001
Diabetes, n (%) 322 (22.4) 246 (21.9) 76 (24.1) 0.415
Heart diseasea, n (%) 486 (33.8) 357 (31.8) 129 (40.8) 0.009
Strokea, n (%) 124 (8.6) 86 (7.7) 38 (12.0) 0.044
Cataract, n (%) 200 (13.9) 145 (12.9) 55 (17.4) 0.041
COPDa, n (%) 199 (13.8) 142 (12.6) 57 (18.0) 0.029
Arthritisa, n (%) 518 (36.0) 384 (34.2) 134 (42.4) 0.015
Nephritisa, n (%) 69 (4.8) 52 (4.6) 17 (5.4) 0.763
Tumor, n (%) 51 (3.5) 37 (3.3) 14 (4.4) 0.333
cysC (mg/L), mean (SD) 0.99 (0.29) 0.97 (0.29) 1.09 (0.26) < 0.001
HDL (mmol/L), mean (SD) 1.49 (0.44) 1.50 (0.42) 1.44 (0.49) 0.023
LDL (mmol/L), mean (SD) 2.69 (0.85) 2.67 (0.85) 2.78 (0.87) 0.045
Creatinine (μmol/L), mean (SD) 70.5 (21.8) 69.7 (22.8) 73.3 (17.7) 0.010
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2), mean (SD) 81.3 (30.6) 84.2 (31.7) 71.2 (23.4) < 0.001
MMSE score, mean (SD) 26.2 (4.5) 26.4 (4.4) 25.5 (4.8) 0.002
ADL-disability, n (%) 32 (2.2) 12 (1.1) 20 (6.3) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cysC cystatin C, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, MMSE mini-mental state examination, ADL activities of daily living
  2. aNumbers of subjects with missing values were 5 for smoking, 11 for alcohol consumption, 1 for stroke, 3 for heart disease, 4 for COPD, 2 for arthritis, and 3 for nephritis. In the subsequent analyses, subjects with missing values were placed in the non-exposure group