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Table 3 Regression results: total public healthcare expenditures (adjusted, log scale)

From: Regional variation in healthcare spending and mortality among senior high-cost healthcare users in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective matched cohort study

Total costs
Variables HCU# Non-HCU&
  Coefficient (SE) Coefficient (SE)
Variance in probability of incurring costs,
σ2u1
  0.065 (0.026)*
Variance in costs once incurred,
σ2u2
0.0009 (0.0004)* 0.001 (0.001)*
Covariance between σ2u1 and σ2u2   0.006 (0.003)
Probability (costs≠0)
 Intercept   4.49 (0.16)*
 Age   −0.067 (0.002)*
 Sex, M   − 0.205 (0.03)*
 ADG   1.018 (0.009)*
 Low income status   −0.129 (0.035)*
Costs > 0
 Intercept 9.74 (0.02)* 5.946 (0.025)*
 Age 0.008 (0.0002)* 0.016 (0.001)*
 Sex, M 0.064 (0.003)* 0.044 (0.005)*
 ADG −0.011 (0.0004)* 0.081 (0.001)*
 Low income status 0.018 (0.004)* 0.134 (0.006)*
log_theta 0.788 (0.003)* 0.473 (0.004)*
R2 (part 1), %   87.0%
R2 (part 2), % 1.6% 19.7%
LRT (Chi2 dist, p < 0.05) 2333.0 88,500.57
  1. & - Estimated through GLMM; # - Estimated through a mixed effects two-part model; * - estimates were statistically significant at p < .05; ADGs- Aggregated Diagnosis Groups; HCU- high-cost user; LHIN – Local Health Integrated Network; Log-theta- the logarithm of the shape parameter of gamma distribution; LRT- likelihood ratio test; R2- coefficients of determination; SE- Standard Error