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Table 1 Patient baseline individual and care characteristics, pre-incident year

From: Regional variation in healthcare spending and mortality among senior high-cost healthcare users in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective matched cohort study

Characteristic HCU Non-HCU SDD
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)  
Age: subgroup (%)
 66–74 39.7 (2.5) 39.7 (2.5) 0.00
 75–84 39.9 (0.8) 39.9 (0.8) 0.00
 ≥ 85 20.5 (2.5) 20.5 (2.5) 0.00
 Sex (F, %) 52.7 (1.3) 52.7 (1.3) 0.00
 Rurality (urban, %) 61.8 (27.6) 62.7 (28.0) 0.03
 Low income senior (%) 17.6 (5.2) 16.8 (5.7) 0.01
 Number of ADGs (mean) 10.1 (0.4) 7.9 (0.3) 0.50
 Malignant neoplasms (%) 32.2 (2.6) 23.4 (3.2) 0.20
 Common chronic conditions* (%) 60.6 (2.4) 44.8 (2.3) 0.30
 Mental health# (%) 37.6 (4.1) 26.9 (2.5) 0.20
 Number of MDs involved in care (mean) 8.1 (0.5) 5.6 (0.3) 0.50
 Seen by a geriatrician (%) 2.8 (1.3) 1.1 (0.5) 0.12
 Number of prescription drugs (mean) 8.4 (0.4) 5.6 (0.3) 0.60
 Acute inpatient care (%) 3.8 (1.1) 2.1 (0.7) 0.10
  1. ADGs- Aggregated Diagnosis Groups; HCU- high-cost user; *ICES- derived common chronic conditions (either one of the following: CHF-congestive heart failure; COPD- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM- diabetes, MI- myocardial infarction, RA- rheumatoid arthritis); LHIN – Local Health Integrated Network; SD- Standard Deviation; # includes any of mental health conditions among Expanded Diagnosis Clusters (PSY01–12); SDD – absolute standardized difference; SDD ≥ 0.1 indicates a meaningful difference