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Table 1 Sample characteristics (n = 7838)

From: The association between obesity and social exclusion in middle-aged and older adults: findings from a nationally representative study in Germany

  N/Mean %/(SD)
Gender: Female 3996 51.0%
Age in years 64.4 11.2
Marital status: married and living together with spouse 5476 70.0%
Monthly net equivalent income in Euro 1943.7 1382.3
Weight classification: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 1634 21.2%
Smoking status: Daily 1076 13.8%
 - Yes, sometimes 309 4.0%
 - Not anymore 2879 37.1%
 - Never been smoker 3500 45.1%
Consumption of alcohol: Daily 925 12.0%
 - several times a week 1882 24.4%
 - once a week 1244 16.1%
 - one to three times a month 938 12.1%
 - less frequently 1862 24.1%
 - never 874 11.3%
Physical activity: Daily 663 8.5%
 - several times a week 2136 27.3%
 - once a week 1427 18.2%
 - one to three times a month 592 7.5%
 - less frequently 918 11.7%
 - never 2101 26.8%
Self-rated health (from 1 = “very good” to 5 = “very bad”) 2.5 0.8
Number of physical illnesses 2.6 1.9
Social exclusion (from 1 to 4; higher values reflect higher social exclusion) 1.6 0.6
Social exclusion: 1 2350 30.0%
  > 1 and < 2 2754 35.1%
  ≥ 3 and < 4 2397 30.6%
  ≥ 4 and < 5 299 3.8%
 5 38 0.5%
  1. Social exclusion was assessed using a scale developed by Bude and Lantermann [20]. Range for number of physical illnesses was 0 to 11