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Table 2 Relative risk ratios of the high and the moderate frequencies relative to the low frequency of self-perceived uselessness among centenarians in comparison with non-centenarians, CLHLS 2005–2014

From: A comparison of perceived uselessness between centenarians and non-centenarians in China

Ages at survey Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI
High frequency relative to low frequency
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 65–79 1.84*** (1.69–2.01) 1.52*** (1.39–1.67) 1.56*** (1.42–1.71) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.69** (0.54–0.88)
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 80–89 1.04 (0.95–1.13) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 0.75*** (0.69–0.82) 0.66*** (0.60–0.72) 0.57*** (0.49–0.68)
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 90–99 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 0.85* (0.78–0.93) 0.78*** (0.71–0.85) 0.75*** (0.67–0.83)
Moderate frequency relative to low frequency
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 65–79 1.35*** (1.25–1.46) 1.23*** (1.13–1.33) 1.21*** (1.11–1.31) 1.11* (1.02–1.21) 1.09* (1.00–1.19) 0.82+ (0.66–1.02)
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 80–89 1.04 (0.96–1.13) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 1.00 (0.92–1.08) 0.93+ (0.85–1.00) 0.89** (0.82–0.96) 0.78** (0.67–0.90)
 Ages 100+ vs. ages 90–99 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.99 (0.91–1.07) 0.99 (0.92–1.08) 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 0.91* (0.85–0.99) 0.87** (0.79–0.96)
  1. Note: (1) Figures in the table were relative risk ratios based on unweighted multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for intrapersonal correlation from 26,624 respondents consisting of 48,476 observations. (2) The high frequency of feelings of useless referred to always/often; the moderate frequency referred to sometimes; and the low frequency referred to seldom/never. The category of “unable to answer” of the self-perceived uselessness was included in the analyses, but their results were not presented because they are not our focuses. (3) Model I controlled for demographic attributes (sex, urban-rural residence, ethnicity), and the years of survey; Model II added resource factors (educational attainment, primary life occupation, economic independence, family economic condition, and adequate access to healthcare services when in need) in Model I; Model III controlled for social environmental factors (marital status, coresidence with children, primary caregivers) in addition to covariates in Model I; Model IV controlled for behavioral factors (leisure activities) in addition to covariates in Model I; Model V controlled for health-related factors (disability in activities of daily living and cognitive impairment) in addition to covariates in Model I; and Model VI controlled for all covariates in Models I to V. (4) + p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001