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Table 1 Distribution of the pooled datasets: 2005, 2008, 2011, and 2014 waves of the CLHLS

From: A comparison of perceived uselessness between centenarians and non-centenarians in China

Variables Sample % a Self-perceived uselessness (percentage)
Always/often Sometimes Seldom /never Unable to answer
Total observations 48,476 (100%) 11,147 (23.0%) b 15,122 (31.2%) b 16,000 (33.0%)b 6207 (12.8%)b
Age groups
 Age 65–79 30.3 19.7 34.3 43.8 2.3
 Age 80–89 26.7 26.4 33.3 32.7 7.6
 Age 90–99 26.0 24.7 29.9 28.1 17.3
 Age 100+ 17.0 20.9 24.4 21.9 32.8
Other demographics
 Female 56.4 25.0 30.2 28.8 16.0
 Male 43.6 20.4 32.5 38.4 8.7
 Non-Han ethnicity 16.3 19.3 34.0 34.2 12.5
 Han ethnicity 83.7 23.7 30.7 32.8 12.9
Resources
 Own education, 0 years of schooling 66.0 24.9 30.7 28.5 15.9
 Own education, 1–6 years of schooling 25.1 20.8 32.9 38.7 7.6
 Own education, 7+ years of schooling 8.9 15.0 29.9 50.2 4.9
 Rural 56.4 24.7 31.4 30.2 13.8
 Urban 43.6 20.9 30.9 36.7 11.6
 Non-white collar occupation 92.3 23.7 31.3 31.7 13.3
 White collar occupation 7.7 14.2 29.7 49.2 6.9
 Economic dependence 72.2 25.2 30.7 28.4 15.7
 Economic independence 27.8 17.3 32.5 45.0 5.2
 Fair or poor family economic condition 84.8 24.1 31.5 31.0 13.4
 Rich family economic condition 15.2 16.8 29.3 44.5 9.3
 Not covered by state medical insurance scheme 8.5 35.7 27.7 15.5 21.1
 Covered by state medical insurance scheme 91.5 21.8 31.5 34.7 12.0
Family/social support
 Currently not married 66.0 24.5 30.2 28.2 17.1
 Currently married 34.0 20.1 33.1 42.3 4.5
 Coresidence with children - no 39.3 24.3 32.5 35.6 7.6
 Coresidence with children - yes 60.7 22.2 30.4 31.3 16.2
 Receiving money/food from children - no 20.0 21.5 28.5 33.5 16.6
 Receiving money/food from children - yes 80.0 23.4 31.9 32.9 11.9
 Giving money/food to children - yes 77.0 24.5 30.2 30.2 15.1
 Giving money/food to children - no 23.0 18.1 34.5 42.5 5.0
Behaviors
 Frequency of leisure activities-low level 75.6 25.2 30.6 28.5 15.7
 Frequency of leisure activities- medium level 11.0 16.7 34.6 43.4 5.4
 Frequency of leisure activities -high level 13.6 15.8 31.6 49.8 2.8
Health conditions
 ADL independent 74.6 21.8 33.7 38.1 6.5
 ADL dependent 25.4 26.4 24.0 18.2 31.5
 Cognitively unimpaired 60.1 21.1 35.7 41.7 1.4
 Cognitively impaired 39.9 25.8 24.4 19.9 30.0
Survey years
 Wave 2005 31.6 23.2 32.2 33.4 11.3
 Wave 2008 33.7 23.9 29.1 31.9 15.1
 Wave 2011 20.0 22.1 31.9 34.4 11.6
 Wave 2014 14.7 21.7 33.0 33.0 12.3
Cohorts born in 1906–1913 (2921) c
 Died at ages 91–94 10.2 29.4 33.1 21.7 15.7
 Died at ages 95–99 58.8 23.5 28.0 27.1 21.4
 Died at ages 100+ 31.0 25.3 29.3 29.3 16.1
  1. Note: (1) Except for the total number of observations in the top line, all numbers were percentages unless otherwise stated. (2) a, this column referred to percentage distribution of each category of the study variables among 48,476 observations from 26,624 individuals who were interviewed from 2005 to 2014. The distributions by 26,624 individuals at their baseline were similar to what were presented in the Table 3b, percentages of self-perceived uselessness were calculated by row. The row sum of percentage of self-perceived uselessness may not be equal to 100% due to roundness. (4) c, Distribution for cohorts born in 1906–1913 was based on 2972 individuals who were followed-up till the 2014 wave or died before 2014. Those who were lost to follow-up between 2005 and 2014 were excluded. (5) All distributions were unweighted