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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants

From: Identifying and understanding the health and social care needs of older adults with multiple chronic conditions and their caregivers: a scoping review

Author and year Sample size and mean age (age range) % Female Diseases Number of diseases Ethnicity SES Living situation/Marital status Education Other
Older adult characteristics
 Adeniji 2015 N = 486. mean 70 (range 31–91) 52 COPD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, depression Median: 7; range: 2–20 Not reported 13% in paid jobs; no further details. 68% owned cars Not reported 60% completed school/GCSE as a minimum level of education  
 Ancker 2015 N = 22 mean age = 64 (range 37–89) 50 Hypertension, heart disease, chronic pain, depression, asthma, HIV, hepatitis C & diabetes Mean = 3.5 (SD 1.5). Minimum 2 conditions. 32% black 32% had Medicare, 32% had Medicaid & 36% had commercial insurance 68% not currently married Not reported 36% English as second language. > 80% over the age of 55 yrs.
 Ansari 2014 N = 17 Mean age 67; (range 43–84) 47 High cholesterol, hypertension, depression & smoking, COPD, arthritis Range 1–7 Mostly Caucasian Not reported, sample ranges from student to employed to retired, 11% unemployed and 1 person (5%) volunteer 65% live with spouse; 30% live alone; 5 (one person) live with a grandchild 9 had some high school education, the rest higher including 6 university  
 Barstow 2015 N = 8. mean age was 79 years (range 66–92). 75 Arthritis- 88% hypertension- 62% hypotension- 25% cancer- 50% osteoporosis- 38% hearing impairment- 38% cardiac/circulatory system problems- 51% kidney problems- 37% digestive problems- 25% urinary system problems- 25% pulmonary problems- 13% It was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire White Not reported Not reported Not reported  
 Bayliss 2007 N = 16 Range: 31–70 years. 66 Osteoarthritis, depression & diabetes 38% had 4–9; 62% had 10–16 conditions Ethnicity: 11% Hispanic/Latino; 88% other. Race: 90% white; 8% other; 2% black African American 76% less than USD 45,000; 17% more than 45,000. 53% married; 14% divorced/ separated; 2% never married; 29% widowed. 35% High-school educated; 10% some high school or less; 31% some college/ 2 year degree; 22% 4 year college degree.  
 Bayliss 2003 N = 352 55% in age range of 65–74; 45% were 75 and above 81 Hypertension, COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, musculoskeletal disorders, history of depression, vision problems, coronary arterial disease, migraine, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux, congestive heart failure, depression, osteoarthritis & diabetes, history of depression Median: 4; range: 2–7 All white 7: <  15, 000; 8: >  15,000 ranging up to 60,000 USD Not reported At least high school education. High school graduate: 2; Some college: 7; College graduate: 5; Post-college: 2  
 Beverly 2011 N = 32. mean 75.3 ± 7.4; range 60–88 56.3 Hypertension, retinopathy, hypercholesterolemia coronary artery disease neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmia, hypothyroidism, depression, myocardial infarction, asthma, chronic pain, presbycusis, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, leukaemia, nephropathy, prostate cancer, insomnia, diabetes, arthritis and cancer Mean 5.2; Range 3–9 100% white Not reported, 94% retired 72% married Mean 14.6 years of education; range 9–20  
 Bunn 2017 N = 28, median age 82.5, range 59–94 36 Alzheimer’s disease 56%, mixed dementia 19%, vascular dementia 17%, Parkinson’s with dementia 8%, diabetes, stroke, vision impairment Not reported 85% white-majority British white Not reported 78% patients lived with a carer Not reported  
 Burton 2016 N = 30. Age 65–95 53 Diabetes, arthritis, cancer, stroke, hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, gout, cardiovascular disease Not reported All white except one South Asian Not reported 15/30 live alone, 13 live with partner and 2 with a family member Not reported  
 Cheraghi-Sohi 2013 N = 30. mean 69; range 55–86 60 Osteoarthritis, cancer, diabetes Mean 4; Range 2–9 Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported  
 Clarke 2014 N = 35. Mean age of men 78.6. Mean women 80.3. Range 73–91 54 Back problems/ cataracts/ glaucoma/ heart disease, cancer, diabetes, arthritis Range: 3–14; average 6 African 1, Asian/ South Asian 3, European 7, North American 23, South American 1 < 15,000 4, 15–24,999 4, 25–34,999 7, 35–44,999 3, 45–54,999 6, 55–64 1.65–74 1, 75–84 5 Participants lived in own home or retirement home. Currently married/ common law 13, divorced/ separated 5, never married 4, widowed 13 College/University 6, graduate school 7, high school 9, some high school 7, technical school 6  
 Coventry 2014 N = 20 age Mean age 66.2 (54–88). Not reported Depression, COPD, cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes, arthritis Median: 2.55; range: 2–4 Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported  
 DiNapoli 2016 N = 28. Mean age 63.4 SD 6.3 22 Not identified on the excel CIRG score mean 14.1 SD 3.3 & 64% White, rest not reported 4/28 working. 1 self-employed, 17 retired, 6 unemployed 61% non-married, 39% married High-school educated (education mean: 13.71 ± 2.35)  
 Fortin 2005 N = 25. mean 72.7 SD 8.2 60 Diabetes, others not reported Mean 14.4 SD 4.5 Not reported Only 20% had more than 50,000 income, the rest mostly between 10,000 and 40,000 48% were married, 32% widowed 8% divorced/ separated and 12% never married 76% had up to grade 12 education, 16% college and 4% university education  
 Fried 2008 N = 66. Age 65 and older; >  75+  6 participants 67 Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, depression, arthritis, falls, urinary incontinence, osteoporosis Median: 5; range 3–8; 76% white, 23% white, 1% other, 3% Latino Not reported 48% lived alone. 39% married   
 Gill 2014 N = 28. mean age: 82.3 (SD 7.7); 44 Not reported Median 5 (SD 2.4) Not reported Not reported 82% of the caregivers were spousal caregivers Most pts. and caregivers had more than high school education and lived in a single-family home  
 Hansen 2015 N = 21. mean 77 (70–88) 47 Hypertension, lower back pain, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, cardiac arrhythmias, cerebral ischemia, lower limb varicosities, prostatic hyperplasia, vision reduction, gout, intestinal diverticulosis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, renal insufficiency, cardiac valve disorders, gallstones, cardiac insufficiency, anemias, neuropathies, migraine, urinary tract calculi, dizziness, hemorrhoids, gynecological problems Not reported Not reported Not reported Married: men 72%; women 40%; Widow: men 9%; women 40%; Divorced: men 9%; women 9%; Never married: men 9% 7 patients had a low education level; 7 had a medium level, and 6 had a high level  
 Kuluski 2013 N = 28. mean age: 82.3 (7.7 SD) 44 Not reported 4.61 (SD 2.43) 96% Caucasian, 4% other 85% can support self financially 70% live in a single-family home; 15% apartment; 7% retirement home. 67% married; 33% other. 70% greater than high school; 30% high school diploma or less  
 Lo 2016 N = 58; median age 67 (range 48–84) 29 Chronic kidney disease stage 3–5, depression, diabetes Not reported Majority of focus group participants were Caucasian (72.4%), South Asian (13.8%), Asian (10.3%), Pacific Islander (1.7%) or Hispanic (1.7%) Not reported Not reported Not reported  
 Loeb 2003 N = 37 older adults. Mean age 72; range 55–88 70 Not reported Mean 4.5; Range 2–11 100% Caucasian Not reported 100% independent and community dwelling. Not reported  
 Mason 2016 N = 37. Mean 76; range 55–92 38 Heart, respiratory, liver and renal failure, neurological conditions and mild dementia Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported  
 McDonnall 2016 N = 131. Mean age 69.9 (range of 55 to 99) 62 Hearing and vision loss Not reported 89% white, 4% African American, 3% American Indian, 1% Hispanic, 1.5% mixed and other unknown Not reported Private residence/ living alone 36%; private residence with spouse or others (53%); Retirement or assistive living facility (8%). Not reported  
 Morales-Asencio 2016 N = 18. mean age 73.6 years 61 Diabetes, arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory, congestive heart failure, COPD/ asthma/ renal impairment Not reported Not reported Participants from working class neighborhoods, and in some cases, significantly limited living conditions Two patients had no family caregiver. Participants lived in working class neighborhoods Not reported All were receiving home care
 Naganathan 2016 N = 28. Mean 82.3 43 Not reported Average 5; interquartile range of 3–7 Not reported Not reported 70% lived in a single home. 70% had higher education 19% patients reported currently receiving home care; 96% receiving support from family caregiver, 70% from friends and neighbors, 26% from community programs
 Noël 2005 N = 60. Age range 30s–80s no mean age provided 20 Not reported Not reported Majority white; African- Americans and Hispanics Not reported 4 urban clinics and 4 rural clinics Not reported All veterans
 Ravenscroft 2010 N = 20. 30% >74y; 45% 65-74y; 25% 45–64 55 Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes Except one patient, all had 3 or more chronic conditions, majority with 3 or 4 stage chronic kidney disease Caucasian 90%; black 10% 20% employed; 70% retired; 10% unemployed. 55% married; 30% widowed; 15% single. Participants: city - 85%; rural - 15% 60% beyond high school; 20% high school; 20%; less than high school Home language - 80% English exclusively; 20% other
 Richardson 2016 N = 33. 12% (51–60); 67% (61–70); 12% (71–80); 9% (81–90) 6 Diabetes, arthritis, cancer, hypertension, chronic pain, heart disease, Mean = 6; Range 3–11 82% White; 18% black; 3% Hispanic; 97% non-Hispanic 12% under 10,000; 15% 10,000–19,999; 30% 20,000–39,999; 18% 40,000–49,999; 9% 50,000 + . 64% married; 33 divorced; 3 widowed 3% did not complete HS; 18% high school grad; 52% some college; 27% college or higher  
 Roberge 2016 N = 10. 5 were 60 years or older. 50 Depression; anxiety; cardiovascular diseases; pulmonary conditions & musculoskeletal conditions Not reported Not reported Not reported 7/10 married or lived with a partner 7/10 had high school degree or less  
 Roberto 2005 N = 17. mean 76.1 (range 69–84) 100 Diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis mean 4.1; range 2–6 Not reported Monthly income: two < 750; six 750–1000; one 1001–1299; Two 1300–1999; One 2000–2999; Two 3000–3900; three not reported. 11 Widowed; 1 Single; 4 Married; 1 Divorced. 11 lived alone, 1 with son, 1 with daughter, 4 with husband. 3 greater than high school; 12 high school; 2 < high school  
 Ryan 2016 1805 were qualified as high need: 1274 Multiple complex chronic conditions; 379 under 65 disabled; 152 frail elderly. 82% 50 years and older with high needs. 52 Diabetes Not reported White, non-Hispanic: 64; Black, non-Hispanic: 10 & Hispanic: 15 The high needs population has lower level of income than the general US population Not reported The high needs population has lower level of education than the general US population  
 Schoenberg 2011 N = 20. Mean age 55 85% Heart disease or hypertension; arthritis; type 2 diabetes; cancer; stroke; and other illnesses Mean of 4 95% white 65% less than $10,000
20% $10,001–15,000 5% $15,001–20,000
10% $20,001–25,000.
55% married. Most lived with at least one other person 15% had less than high school
25% attended some high school
55% earned a high school diploma or equivalent
5% had some postsecondary education
All unemployed. Average length of stay in county is 36 years.
70% had no health insurance. Those who did report insurance, indicated Medicaid, Medicare, or disability coverage.
 Sheridan 2012 33 were aged 55–74 and 13 were 75+ 50 Cardiovascular, COPD, congestive heart failure, depression, gout, diabetes, arthritis Most had 3+ chronic conditions 32/42 were from ethic minority groups: 19 pacific, 12 Samoans, Maori 8 and Asian 3. Lowest socioeconomic class quintile in Auckland 33 lived with family, 6 alone and 3 in residential care. 33 lived with family, 6 lived alone, 3 lived in residential care. Not reported  
 Zulman 2015 N = 53. Mean 59 (SD =11) 26 Diabetes, arthritis, cancer, hypertension, chronic pain, depression, headaches, PTSD, Lung/breathing problems, prostate problems Mean 5 (SD 2) White, non-Hispanic 81%; Black, non-Hispanic 6%; Hispanic 9%; Other, non-Hispanic 13% <$50,000 43%; $50,001–$75,000 16%; >$75,001 41% Not reported High school degree or less 8%; some college + 44%; college degree or more 48%  
Health care professional characteristics
Year and author Sample size and mean age Type of provider Years of experience Other
 Ancker 2015 N = 7, no age provided 2 Nurse Practitioners, 2 internists, 2 family medicine physicians; 1 emergency medicine physician Not collected 4/7 Females
 Bardach 2012 N = 12, age range 31–47. Family medicine, internal medicine and OB/GYN 3–22 years They were all affiliated with a university health system but 5 practices in offsite community locations
 Barstow 2015 N = 59, no age provided Occupational therapists OT experience:<  10 year 25%, 10–20 45% & > 20 30%; Low vision experience: <  10 68.3%,10–20  
 Bunn 2017 56 health care providers, no age provided Family physicians; consultants with specialty in diabetes & VI; Rest not mentioned Not reported  
 Coventry 2014 N = 20, no age provided 16 family physicians and 4 Practice Nurses 18 (5–36)  
 Gill 2014 N = 4, no age provided 4 family physicians from one family health team Not reported  
 Grundberg 2016 N = 25, age range 31–83. Nurses. 2/25 were specialized nurses in mental health care. 4 had BScN degree, 6 MN degree. Most worked full time range 4 months −34 years 2 were specialized RNs in mental health care. Most of them completed training in motivational interviewing
 Hansen 2015 N = 15, mean age 53.4 (range 39–65) Family physicians 14.6 years (7–28) Family physicians treated 500 to 749 patient every 3 months and 35.7% worked in single practices
 Kuluski 2013 N = 4, no age provided Family physicians Mean: 3; 3 practiced for at least 10 years, 1 physician had practiced 1 year.  
 Naganathan 2016 N = 4, no age provided 4 family physicians Not reported 46% physicians reported that patient currently receiving home care; 93% receiving support from family caregivers; 57% from friends and neighbours; 46% from community programmes.
 Roberge 2016 N = 18. Ae clinicians half were 30–39 years old Clinicians (family physician, nurse, psychologist, social worker; n = 18) 56% had > 10 years’ experience Clinicians felt at ease treating pts. with anxiety and depressive disorders. Sixteen had access to support of other mental health services and they had attended on average 1.7 days of continuing education related to mental health.
 Smith 2010   Family physicians Not reported  
Caregiver characteristics
Author and year Sample size Age %female Relationship to older adult Education Health Other
 Bunn 2017 N = 33 Median age 65, range 46–90 82% 64% of carers were a spouse, 14% adult child Not reported Not reported Carers: 85% white
 Gill 2014 N = 28 Mean age: 70.5; SD 11.3 79% Spouse Most had more than high school education Not reported Lived in a single-family home
 Kuluski 2013 N = 28 70.5 (SD 11.3) 82% 61% were spouses; 32% child; 3.5% sibling; 3.5% friend Not reported Not reported Not reported
 Lo 2016 N = 8 No description provided except that they were carers of chronic kidney disease Stage 5 patients Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
 Mason 2016 N = 17 Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
 Morales-Asencio 2016 N = 18 Not reported Not reported spouse 72%, son/daughter 17%    
 Naganathan 2016 N = 28 70.5 (SD = 11.3) years of age 82% 61% spousal caregivers 64% > high school   > 75% lived in a single family home
  1. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. OT Occupational therapist
  3. PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  4. SD Standard Deviation