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Table 2 Differences in gait velocity and cognitive cost between controls and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment

From: A framework for secondary cognitive and motor tasks in dual-task gait testing in people with mild cognitive impairment

Gait Test Velocity (m/s) Cognitive Cost (%)
Controls (n = 41) MCI (n = 41) t-test p-value* Controls (n = 41) MCI (n = 41) t-test p-value
Usual gait 1.23 (0.19)a 1.13 (0.20)a 0.023    
DT-motor 1.21 (0.17)a 1.05 (0.17)a < 0.001 1.2 (10.4)a 5.8 (10.6)a 0.055
DT-counting1 1.19 (0.19)a,† 1.00 (0.24)a,‡ < 0.001 2.6 (10.1)a,‡ 11.7 (12.9)b,† < 0.001
MT-motor&counting1 1.15 (0.17)b,‡ 0.95 (0.21)b,‡ < 0.001 5.9 (13.9)a,‡ 15.7 (12.9)c,‡ 0.0012
DT-animals 1.11 (0.20)b,‡ 0.88 (0.28)c,‡ < 0.001 10.0 (12.2)b,‡ 22.3 (16.1)d,‡ < 0.001
DT-counting7 1.02 (0.23)c,‡ 0.73 (0.26)d,‡ < 0.001 17.6 (11.5)c,‡ 34.4 (21.1)d,‡ < 0.001
MT-motor&counting7 0.99 (0.22)c, ‡ 0.75 (0.24)d,‡ < 0.001 19.9 (12.9)c,‡ 32.9 (17.9)d,‡ < 0.001
2 way ANOVA* Group p < 0.001 Task p < 0.001 Group x Task p = 0.005   Group p < 0.001 Task p < 0.001 Group x Task p < 0.001  
  1. *, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons; DT-motor, dual-task gait test while carrying glass of water on tray; DT-counting1, dual-task gait test while counting backwards by 1 s; MT-motor&counting1, multi-task gait test of carrying glass of water on tray and counting backwards by 1 s; DT-animals, dual-task gait test while naming animals; DT-counting7, dual-task gait test while counting backwards by 7 s; MT-motor&counting7, multi-task gait test of carrying glass of water and counting backwards by 7 s. Superscript letters (a,b,c,d) denote results of the Bonferroni pairwise within group comparisons across tasks. Conditions within the groups that have the same superscript do not differ from one another. Superscript † indicates that there is a significant change in velocity under dual-task testing compared to usual gait and there was a significant change in cognitive cost compared to the cognitive cost under dual-task gait test while carrying glass of water on tray (DT-motor) at the p < .05 level and ‡ at the p < .001 level