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Table 2 Spearman correlation coefficients for women (n = 56)

From: Relationship of muscle function to circulating myostatin, follistatin and GDF11 in older women and men

  Myostatin (ng/ml) Follistatin (pg/ml) GDF11 (pg/ml)
Age (y) − 0.039 0.185 − 0.089
Body mass (kg) 0.002 − 0.070 − 0.301*
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 0.022 − 0.013 − 0.354**
Waist circumference (cm) − 0.043 0.083 − 0.372**
Waist-to-hip ratio −0.103 0.260 −0.202
Body fat % −0.084 0.035 −0.458***
Fat free mass (kg) (n = 52) −0.075 −0.173 − 0.128
Fat free mass (%) (n = 52) 0.073 −0.083 0.359**
Fat mass (kg) (n = 52) −0.071 0.006 −0.331**
Fat mass (%) (n = 52) −0.073 0.083 −0.359**
Muscle mass (kg) (n = 52) −0.025 −0.123 − 0.199
ADL (pts) −0.024 0.161 0.016
IADL (pts) −0.132 0.114 0.081
Timed Up&Go test (s) −0.071 0.366** −0.163
Tinetti test (pts) 0.163 −0.199 −0.127
MMSE (pts) 0.038 −0.138 0.038
GDS (pts) 0.040 0.034 0.049
Falls (n/year) −0.239 0.066 −0.133
Handgrip strength L (kG) −0.296* −0.063 − 0.080
Handgrip strength R (kG) −0.203 0.036 0.030
Leg Extension 1RM R (kG) −0.049 −0.075 − 0.143
Leg Extension 1RM L (kG) −0.051 − 0.204 −0.170
Leg Press 1RM (kG) 0.031 −0.216 −0.135
P40% LE R (W) −0.056 −0.179 − 0.124
P70% LE R (W) −0.169 − 0.135 −0.206
P40% LE L (W) −0.058 −0.151 − 0.242
P70% LE L (W) −0.046 − 0.147 −0.151
P40% LP (kG) −0.091 −0.216 − 0.177
P70% LP (kG) −0.117 − 0.279* −0.250
Pmax (W) −0.141 −0.387** − 0.186
Pmax·kg−1 (W·kg−1) −0.156 − 0.405** −0.049
υopt (rpm) −0.329* −0.183 − 0.220
Myostatin (ng/ml) −0.061 0.080
Follistatin (pg/ml) −0.061 0.032
GDF11 (pg/ml) 0.080 0.032
  1. Note. ADL Activities of daily living, GDF11 growth/differentiation factor 11, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, IADL Instrumental Activities of daily living, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001