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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants (n = 101)

From: Relationship of muscle function to circulating myostatin, follistatin and GDF11 in older women and men

  Women Men
n = 56 n = 45
Age (y) 68.2 ± 4.4 70.9 ± 6.8
Body mass (kg) 71.1 ± 12.8 83.7 ± 14***
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 28.3 ± 4.7 28.5 ± 4.0
Waist circumference (cm) 89.5 ± 10.8 101 ± 10.6***
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.08 0.99 ± 0.06***
Body fat % 43.1 ± 8.1 24.75 ± 4.6***
Fat free mass (kg) 42.6 ± 3.9 (n = 52) 60.3 ± 8.9 (n = 41)***
Fat free mass (%) 61.1 ± 6.8 (n = 52) 73.1 ± 4.7 (n = 41)***
Fat mass (kg) 28.3 ± 9.9 (n = 52) 22.7 ± 7.3 (n = 41)**
Fat mass (%) 38.9 ± 6.8 (n = 52) 26.9 ± 4.7 (n = 41)***
Muscle mass (kg) 18.1 ± 1.8 (n = 52) 29.4 ± 4.1 (n = 41)***
ADL (pts) 5.8 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.23
IADL (pts) 7.9 ± 0.2 7.93 ± 0.27
Timed Up & Go test (s) 6.2 ± 0.97 6.53 ± 1.99
Tinetti test (pts) 27.6 ± 1.1 27.58 ± 1.7
MMSE (pts) 29.9 ± 0.1 29.4 ± 1.2***
GDS (pts) 2.8 ± 2.6 2.33 ± 2.53
Falls (n/year) 0.6 ± 0.7 0.24 ± 0.5*
Handgrip strength L (kG) 29.5 ± 6.7 45.6 ± 9.97***
Handgrip strength R (kG) 30.5 ± 7.3 47.4 ± 10.8***
Leg Extension 1RM R (kG) 32.3 ± 9.4 55.5 ± 13.4***
Leg Extension 1RM L (kG) 31.2 ± 8.8 54.1 ± 13.5***
Leg Press 1RM (kG) 134.1 ± 30.9 215.8 ± 56.3***
P40% LE R (W) 138.6 ± 41.5 260.7 ± 76.9***
P70% LE R (W) 154.5 ± 47.9 302.1 ± 87.7***
P40% LE L (W) 133.9 ± 40.2 242.8 ± 72.7***
P70% LE L (W) 144.5 ± 44.1 272.1 ± 83.6***
P40% LP (W) 612.4 ± 175.9 1165.8 ± 321.8***
P70% LP (W) 695.7 ± 202 1259.3 ± 338.1***
Pmax (W) 271.4 ± 88.4 446.2 ± 159.5***
Pmax·kg−1 (W·kg−1) 3.9 ± 1.2 5.4 ± 1.9***
υopt (rpm) 71.5 ± 12.6 83.7 ± 18.2***
Myostatin (ng/ml) 42.9 ± 25.6 39.8 ± 17.4
Follistatin (pg/ml) 1429.6 ± 436.9 1695.5 ± 659.6*
GDF11 (pg/ml) 52.5 ± 24.2 40.2 ± 19.4*
  1. Data presented as mean + SD
  2. Note. ADL Activities of daily living, GDF11 growth/differentiation factor 11, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, IADL Instrumental Activities of daily living, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001