Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Comparison of covariates, hand and cognitive variables among age categories (N = 326)

From: Hand dexterity, not handgrip strength, is associated with executive function in Japanese community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Age categories p-value
60–64 (n = 54) 65–69 (n = 104) 70–74 (n = 101) ≥ 75 (n = 67)
Years of education 14.4 ± 2.5 13.4 ± 2.2 13.3 ± 2.5 12.8 ± 2.7* 0.004
TMIG-IC 12.2 ± 0.8 12.3 ± 0.9 12.4 ± 0.9 12.2 ± 1.3 0.645
GDS 2.3 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 2.5 2.5 ± 2.3 3.0 ± 2.3 0.09
Heart disease, n (%) 2 (3.7) 1 (1.0) 11 (10.9) 7 (10.4) 0.012a
Diabetes, n (%) 2 (3.7) 9 (8.7) 6 (5.9) 5 (7.5) 0.670a
Hypertension, n (%) 11 (20.4) 23 (22.1) 27 (26.7) 28 (41.8) 0.020a
Stroke, n (%) 3 (5.6) 6 (5.8) 5 (5.0) 3 (4.5) 0.983a
Hand motor variables, mean ± SD
 Handgrip strength (Kg) 23.4 ± 4.7 22.6 ± 5.3 22.9 ± 7.0 20.9 ± 6.3 0.104
 PPT (Number of pegs) 14.5 ± 1.5 13.7 ± 2.1 13.1 ± 1.9* 11.9 ± 1.9*,†,‡ < 0.001
Cognitive variables, mean ± SD
 MMSE 29.2 ± 0.9 28.8 ± 1.3 28.9 ± 1.0 28.6 ± 1.38* 0.023
 TMT-A 30.2 ± 7.7 35.3 ± 13.2 37.9 ± 11.1* 43.2 ± 12.4*,†,‡ < 0.001
 TMT-B 74.5 ± 18.6 91.9 ± 37.6* 107.4 ± 39.9*,† 121.6 ± 40.8*,† < 0.001
 Digit symbolb 67.7 ± 9.3 60.2 ± 13.8 55.3 ± 10.9* 45.6 ± 8.4*,†,‡ < 0.001
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology - Index of Competence, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMT Trail Making Test
  3. Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests: *p <  0.008 vs. 60–64; p <  0.008 vs. 65–69; p < 0.008 vs. 70–74
  4. aThe Chi-square test was performed
  5. bThe total number of subjects analyzed was 207