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Table 4 Association between pet ownership and sleep problems

From: A cross-sectional exploratory analysis between pet ownership, sleep, exercise, health and neighbourhood perceptions: the Whitehall II cohort study

Problem Pet owners v Non-owners Dog owners v owners of other pets
Unadjusted Adjusted b Unadjustedc Adjustedd
ORa (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Trouble falling asleep 0.84 (0.76 to 0.93) 0.001 0.83 (0.75 to 0.92) 0.001 0.82 (0.69 to 0.98) 0.03 0.84 (0.69 to 1.00) 0.06
Wake several times 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08) 0.68 1.03 (0.93 to 1.13) 0.62 1.04 (0.88 to 1.23) 0.64 1.04 (0.88 to 1.24) 0.62
Cannot stay asleep 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08) 0.75 1.00 (0.91 to 1.11) 0.97 1.04 (0.88 to 1.23) 0.61 1.06 (0.89 to 1.26) 0.53
Wake as usual but feel tired 1.14 (1.03 to 1.26) 0.01 1.16 (1.04 to 1.28) 0.01 1.01 (0.85 to 1.21) 0.87 1.03 (0.86 to 1.23) 0.75
Disturbed sleep 1.01 (0.91 to 1.11) 0.91 1.01 (0.91 to 1.11) 0.88 0.98 (0.83 to 1.16) 0.79 1.00 (0.84 to 1.20) 0.96
  1. aodds ratios and confidence intervals calculated from proportional odds regression models
  2. bpredictors in the model are binary pet ownership, age, number of social activities and longstanding illness
  3. cpredictors in the model are pet ownership and dog ownership
  4. dpredictors in the model are pet ownership, dog ownership, age, number of social activities and longstanding illness