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Table 3 percentage of sleep problems with pet owners and non-owners. The p-values compare pet owners (PO) to non-pet owners (NPO)

From: A cross-sectional exploratory analysis between pet ownership, sleep, exercise, health and neighbourhood perceptions: the Whitehall II cohort study

Pet owner(PO), Non-pet owner (NPO) Trouble falling asleep (p = 0.001) Wake up several times (p = 0.683) Cannot stay asleep (p = 0.748) Wake as usual but feel tired (p = 0.010) Disturbed sleep (p = 0.910)
PO NPO PO NPO PO NPO PO NPO PO NPO
Frequency of problem: Not at all 51% 46% 21% 20% 38% 37% 47% 50% 31% 30%
1–3 days 32% 35% 27% 27% 26% 27% 26% 27% 34% 34%
4–7 days 9% 12% 15% 16% 13% 14% 11% 11% 14% 14%
8–14 days 4% 4% 11% 9% 8% 9% 6% 6% 8% 8%
15–21 days 3% 2% 8% 9% 6% 6% 5% 4% 6% 6%
22–31 days 2% 1% 18% 20% 8% 7% 5% 4% 8% 7%