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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: A cross-sectional exploratory analysis between pet ownership, sleep, exercise, health and neighbourhood perceptions: the Whitehall II cohort study

  Non-owners (n = 4646) Pet owners (n = 1929) Dog owners (n = 718) Cat owners (n = 1199)
Demographic variables
 Mean age in years (SD) 66.4 (6.0) 64.9 (5.7) 65.1 (5.7) 64.9 (5.7)
 % retired 86% (3985) 82% (1586) 83% (595) 82% (978)
 % married or cohabiting 72% (3318) 82% (1569) 84% (602) 80% (961)
 Occupational grade: Administrative (highest) 48% (2166/4548) 47% (880/1857) 47% (322/686) 48% (555/1153)
 Occupational grade: Professional / executive (middle) 41% (1878/4548) 45% (831/1857) 48% (329/686) 43% (493/1153)
 Occupational grade: Clerical / support (lowest) 11% (504/4548) 8% (146/1857) 5% (35/686) 9% (105/1153)
 Mean number of social activities (median; IQR) 18.2 (18; 15 to 22) 18.9 (19; 15 to 22) 18.8 (19; 15 to 22) 18.9 (19; 15 to 23)
Health & quality of life variables
 Long-standing illness (self-reported at any time) 66% 64% 65% 64%
 Mean CASP quality of life score (median; IQR) 43.2 (45; 39 to 49) 42.7 (44; 38 to 49) 42.5 (44; 38 to 49) 42.7 (44; 38 to 49)
 Mean SF-36 mental health (median; IQR) 53.6 (56.1; 51.1 to 58.8) 53.1 (55.7; 50.7 to 58.6) 53.2 (55.9; 50.6 to 58.7) 53.2 (55.6; 50.8 to 58.6)
 Mean SF-36 physical health (median; IQR) 48.4 (51.3; 44.4 to 54.6) 48.1 (51.3; 44.0 to 54.8) 47.8 (50.7; 43.1 to 54.7) 48.5 (51.5; 44.8 to 54.8)
 Mean CESD depression (median; IQR) 7.2 (5; 2 to 10) 7.4 (5; 2 to 10) 7.4 (5; 1 to 11) 7.4 (5; 2 to 10)
 CESD > 15 16.6% (770/4646) 17.0% (328/1929) 17.6% (126/718) 17.4% (209/1199)
 Mean GHQ depression & anxiety (median; IQR) 2.2 (0; 0 to 2) 2.6 (0; 0 to 2) 2.6 (0; 0 to 3) 2.4 (0; 0 to 2)
 GHQ > 2/3 40.9% (1901/4646) 43.3% (835/1929) 43.0% (309/718) 43.6% (523/1199)
 Mean 6 m timed walk in seconds (median; IQR) 2.4 (2.2; 1.9 to 2.7) 2.4 (2.2; 1.9 to 2.6) 2.4 (2.2; 1.9 to 2.6) 2.4 (2.2; 1.9 to 2.6)
 Mean body mass index kg/m2 (SD) 26.6 (4.4) 27.1 (4.6) 27.2 (4.6) 27.1 (4.6)
 Prescribed antihypertensives 37% (1745/4642) 35% (683/1928) 36% (258/718) 35% (417/1199)
 Current smoker 7% (326/4646) 9% (166/1929) 10% (71/718) 8% (92/1199)
 Mean general practitioner appointments in previous year (median; IQR) 2.9 (2; 1 to 4) 2.8 (2; 1 to 4) 2.7 (2; 1 to 4) 2.7 (2; 1 to 4)
 Mean forced expiratory volume in litres (SD) 2.7 (0.8) 2.8 (0.8) 2.8 (0.7) 2.8 (0.8)
 Mean mini mental state exam score (median; IQR) 28.4 (29; 28 to 29) 28.5 (29; 28 to 29) 28.5 (29; 28 to 29) 28.5 (29; 28 to 29)