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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at baseline and grouped by BZDA use data at the 3-year follow-up point (final non-users, irregular users, and users of BZDA)

From: Long-term persistence of withdrawal of temazepam, zopiclone, and zolpidem in older adults: a 3-year follow-up study

  Non-users (N = 26) Irregular users (N = 27) Regular users (N = 30) P
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Age (years) 66.3 ± 5.6 66.9 ± 6.2 65.9 ± 6.9 0.815
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)* 26.4 ± 3.8 26.5 ± 2.9 30.0 ± 4.9 0.001
Median [LQ, UQ] Median [LQ, UQ] Median [LQ, UQ]  
Use of alcohol (doses/week) 0.9 [0, 5.5] 2.5 [0, 5.3] 0 [0, 2.0] 0.106
N (%) N (%) N (%)  
BZDA use at baseline
  < 5 years 3 (12) 3 (11) 4 (13) 0.989
 5–10 years 13 (50) 13 (48) 16 (53)
  ≥ 10 years 10 (39) 11 (41) 10 (34)
Randomized to CRM/placebo during withdrawal 12/14 (46/54) 13/14 (48/52) 17/13 (57/43) 0.700
Gender, women/men 16/10 (62/38) 16/11 (59/41) 25/5 (83/17) 0.094
Exercise activity
 Low 1 (4) 2 (7) 3 (10) 0.696
 Medium 25 (96) 23 (85) 26 (87)
 High 0 (0) 2 (7) 1 (3)
Living conditions
 With another person 17 (65) 23 (85) 21 (70) 0.228
 Alone 9 (35) 4 (15) 9 (30)
Education level
 Basic 12 (46) 9 (33) 17 (59) 0.252
 Middle grade 10 (38) 16 (59) 9 (31)
 College or academic 4 (15) 2 (7) 3 (10)
Occupational status
 Regular day shifts 4 (15) 1 (4) 6 (20) 0.357
 Irregular day shifts, shift-work 2 (8) 1 (4) 2 (7)
 Retired or unemployed 20 (77) 25 (93) 22 (73)
Drivers’s licence 23 (88) 24 (89) 26 (87) 1.000
Depression
 Not depressed (GDS-15 sum score < 6) 25 (96) 25 (93) 24 (80) 0.139
 Depressed (GDS-15 sum score ≥ 6) 1 (4) 2 (7) 6 (20)
Smoking
 Non-smoker 25 (96) 27 (100) 26 (87) 0.098
 Smoker 1 (4) 0 (0) 4 (13)
Use of alcohol
 Non-user 4 (15) 5 (19) 7 (24) 0.192
 Once a month or more seldom 9 (34) 5 (19) 14 (48)
 2–4 times a month 7 (27) 11 (42) 6 (21)
 2 times a week or more often 6 (23) 5 (19) 2 (7)
Satisfaction with life
 Very satisfied 4 (15) 4 (15) 2 (7) 0.871
 Quite satisfied 14 (54) 16 (59) 16 (53)
 Not satisfied, but not unhappy 6 (23) 6 (22) 10 (33)
 Quite unhappy 2 (8) 1 (4) 2 (7)
Self-reported health
 Good 6 (23) 5 (19) 5 (17) 0.855
 Fair 15 (58) 19 (70) 21 (70)
 Poor 5 (19) 3 (11) 4 (13)
Expected health a year later#
 Healthier than now 6 (23) 3 (11) 13 (43) 0.001
 No change 18 (69) 23 (85) 10 (33)
 A bit worse than now 2 (8) 1 (4) 7 (23)
  1. *Significant differences in final non-users vs. regular users (P = 0.004) and final irregular users vs. regular users (P = 0.005)
  2. #Significant differences in final non-users vs. regular users (P = 0.029) and final irregular users vs. regular users (P < 0.001)
  3. P = Statistical significance of difference between final non-users, final irregular users, and final regular users
  4. LQ Lower quartile, UQ Upper quartile, BZDA Benzodiazepine agonist, CRM Controlled-release melatonin, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale