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Table 3 Factors associated with the onset of frailtya stratified by the degree of housing damage among elderly male survivors in the RIAS study, 2011–2015

From: Association between health risks and frailty in relation to the degree of housing damage among elderly survivors of the great East Japan earthquake

Variable By the degree of housing damage By residential status b
No Partial Extensive No displaced Temporary Other residence
Number 448 172 405 603 176 246
Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
 BMI, underweight 0.90 (0.09–8.74) 0.931 15.80 (0.74–337.16) 0.077 3.53 (0.74–16.92) 0.114 1.88 (0.34–10.42) 0.468 11.85 (5.35–26.23) <.001 3.78 (0.34–41.96) 0.279
 Current drinkers 0.83 (0.51–1.38) 0.475 0.73 (0.38–1.43) 0.364 0.77 (0.47–1.27) 0.309 0.82 (0.53–1.26) 0.361 0.76 (0.34–1.67) 0.486 0.79 (0.46–1.36) 0.388
 Physical inactivity 0.94 (0.63–1.42) 0.771 1.03 (0.54–1.96) 0.922 1.43 (0.96–2.12) 0.077 0.99 (0.69–1.41) 0.939 0.89 (0.47–1.66) 0.706 1.64 (1.03–2.62) 0.039
 Sedentary lifestyle 1.26 (0.79–2.01) 0.325 1.06 (0.55–2.02) 0.864 1.02 (0.64–1.61) 0.943 1.14 (0.76–1.72) 0.522 0.89 (0.42–1.87) 0.749 1.08 (0.64–1.82) 0.770
 Poor dietary diversity 1.43 (0.94–2.18) 0.092 2.43 (1.26–4.69) 0.008 1.54 (1.02–2.32) 0.042 1.66 (1.15–2.39) 0.006 0.75 (0.42–1.36) 0.348 2.15 (1.27–3.62) 0.004
 Poor self-rated health 3.62 (2.25–5.83) <.001 2.60 (1.09–6.16) 0.031 2.42 (1.54–3.81) <.001 3.39 (2.20–5.21) <.001 4.68 (2.49–8.80) <.001 1.74 (0.95–3.19) 0.075
 Standard of living, difficult 1.69 (1.11–2.59) 0.015 1.22 (0.64–2.33) 0.546 1.15 (0.74–1.78) 0.525 1.51 (1.04–2.19) 0.029 0.88 (0.43–1.80) 0.729 1.32 (0.80–2.20) 0.276
 Psychological distress 1.10 (0.32–3.80) 0.882 1.58 (0.32–7.72) 0.571 3.23 (1.42–7.37) 0.005 1.22 (0.45–3.34) 0.698 7.98 (3.63–17.54) <.001 1.61 (0.38–6.86) 0.517
 Poor social networks 1.64 (1.01–2.65) 0.045 1.45 (0.74–2.86) 0.279 2.21 (1.46–3.37) <.001 1.68 (1.13–2.49) 0.011 2.42 (1.39–4.20) 0.002 2.17 (1.29–3.65) 0.004
  1. BMI body mass index, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. Non-significant variables are not displayed
  3. Adjusted for age, BMI (underweight: < 18, overweight: ≥25 vs. normal: 18–25 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus (yes vs. no), current drinker (yes vs. no), physical activity (inactivity: < 23 METs·h/week vs. ≥23 METs·h/week), sedentary lifestyle (yes vs. no), poor dietary diversity (yes vs. no), poor self-rated health (yes vs. no), standard of living (difficult vs. acceptable), psychological distress (yes vs. no), and poor social network (yes vs. no)
  4. aSurvivors were classified into two groups: frailty (≥5 points on the Kihon Checklist, which is used by the Japanese government to certify the need for long-term care insurance) and non-frailty (< 5 points on the Kihon Checklist)
  5. bTo avoid misclassifying participants’ current situations, we continued updating each person’s residential status throughout the follow-up period using data from repeated questionnaires