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Table 2 Factors associated with the onset of frailtya among elderly male and female survivors in the RIAS study, 2011–2015

From: Association between health risks and frailty in relation to the degree of housing damage among elderly survivors of the great East Japan earthquake

Variable Male Female
All participants in the present study. Only those who participated in all from 2011 to 2015. All participants in the present study. Only those who participated in all from 2011 to 2015.
Number 1025 679 1236 850
Adjusted OR (95% CI) P-value
 BMI, underweight 2.66 (0.84–8.45) 0.098 2.22 (0.47–10.57) 0.317 1.17 (0.54–2.52) 0.692 1.02 (0.45–2.33) 0.959
 BMI, overweight 1.08 (0.81–1.44) 0.612 1.35 (0.94–1.96) 0.108 1.42 (1.10–1.82) 0.006 1.37 (1.02–1.83) 0.038
 Diabetes mellitus 1.16 (0.83–1.62) 0.388 1.23 (0.80–1.90) 0.338 1.46 (1.04–2.03) 0.027 1.25 (0.82–1.90) 0.298
 Sedentary lifestyle 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 0.447 1.08 (0.74–1.59) 0.680 1.54 (1.20–1.98) 0.001 1.57 (1.17–2.12) 0.003
 Poor dietary diversity 1.61 (1.23–2.09) <.001 1.70 (1.22–2.36) 0.002 1.49 (1.19–1.87) 0.001 1.45 (1.12–1.87) 0.005
 Poor self-rated health 2.94 (2.17–3.98) <.001 2.83 (1.91–4.21) <.001 3.03 (2.24–4.09) <.001 3.14 (2.20–4.50) <.001
 Standard of living, difficult 1.28 (0.97–1.70) 0.082 1.54 (1.07–2.20) 0.019 1.33 (1.04–1.71) 0.022 1.35 (1.01–1.79) 0.040
 Psychological distress 2.15 (1.15–4.02) 0.017 3.10 (1.53–6.26) 0.002 1.43 (0.98–2.08) 0.065 1.35 (0.85–2.13) 0.204
 Poor social networks 1.82 (1.38–2.41) <.001 1.67 (1.15–2.42) 0.007 1.33 (1.06–1.67) 0.015 1.36 (1.04–1.77) 0.024
  1. BMI body mass index, OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. Non-significant variables are not displayed in table
  3. Adjusted for males: age, BMI (underweight: < 18, overweight: ≥25 vs. normal: 18–25 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus (yes vs. no), current drinker (yes vs. no), physical activity (inactivity: < 23 METs·h/week vs. ≥23 METs·h/week), sedentary lifestyle (yes vs. no), poor dietary diversity (yes vs. no), poor self-rated health (yes vs. no), standard of living (difficult vs. acceptable), psychological distress (yes vs. no), and poor social network (yes vs. no); females: age, BMI (underweight: < 18, overweight: ≥25 vs. normal: 18–25 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus (yes vs. no), sedentary lifestyle (yes vs. no), poor dietary diversity (yes vs. no), poor self-rated health (yes vs. no), standard of living (difficult vs. acceptable), psychological distress (yes vs. no), and poor social network (yes vs. no)
  4. aSurvivors were classified into two groups: frailty (≥5 points on the Kihon Checklist, which is used by the Japanese government to certify the need for long-term care insurance) and non-frailty (< 5 points on the Kihon Checklist)