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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants by sex, RIAS study, 2011

From: Association between health risks and frailty in relation to the degree of housing damage among elderly survivors of the great East Japan earthquake

  Male (n = 1025) Female (n = 1236) P-valueb
Non-frailty Frailty P-valuea Non-frailty Frailty P-valuea
Number of participants 813 212   938 298   
Age, mean ± SD 71.9 ± 4.7 73.7 ± 5.0 <.001 70.9 ± 4.4 72.7 ± 5.1 <.001 <.001
Age, ≥75 years % 27.3 40.1 <.001 19.7 32.6 <.001 <.001
The degree of housing damage, extensive % 38.9 42.0 0.492 40.8 41.3 0.367 0.226
Job without change due to the disaster, % 21.0 22.0 0.166 20.4 19.1 0.827 <.001
Job with change due to the disaster, % 24.9 30.9   19.8 19.1   
Residential status, temporary % 20.4 21.7 0.109 20.8 22.3 0.842 0.092
Residential status, other residence % 22.2 28.3   27.3 27.4   
BMI, mean ± SD 24.1 ± 2.7 24.2 ± 2.9 0.406 23.5 ± 3.2 24.0 ± 3.5 0.014 <.001
BMI, normal % 64.4 62.8 0.329 70.0 58.7 0.001 <.001
BMI, underweight % 0.3 0.9 2.1 1.7
BMI, overweight % 35.3 36.3   27.9 39.6   
Hypertension, % 62.2 60.4 0.619 55.8 60.4 0.158 0.017
Diabetes mellitus, % 14.5 18.4 0.193 7.8 11.4 0.052 <.001
Hypercholesterolemia, % 25.7 26.4 0.834 36.3 32.6 0.245 <.001
Current smokers, % 19.2 18.9 0.963 1.1 1.0 0.075 <.001
Current drinkers, % 40.7 39.6 0.932 1.5 1.3 0.026 <.001
Physical activity, <23METs·hour/week % 55.8 58.7 0.451 62.7 69.7 0.028 <.001
Sedentary lifestyle, % 27.6 31.6 0.259 26.4 31.3 0.097 0.664
Poor dietary diversity, % 43.5 50.9 0.052 29.6 42.3 <.001 <.001
Self-rated health, poor % 7.0 14.6 0.001 7.8 17.5 <.001 0.208
Standard of living, difficult % 37.5 42.1 0.221 36.3 41.9 0.083 0.701
Psychological distress, % 4.5 10.1 0.002 8.9 14.3 0.008 <.001
Poor social networks, % 28.8 47.3 <.001 26.0 35.3 0.002 0.027
  1. aObtained using the t-test for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables, comparing non-frailty with frailty by sex
  2. bObtained using the t-test for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables, comparing male participants (n = 1025) with female participants (n = 1236)