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Table 4 Predictors of Possible Adverse effects of Medications

From: Polypharmacy among HIV positive older adults on anti-retroviral therapy attending an urban clinic in Uganda

Characteristic Unadjusted PR (95% CI) P value Adjusted PR (95% CI) P value
≥1 possible side effect due to medication once or more per week
 Polypharmacy 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 0.002 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 0.38
 Protease inhibitor based regimen 1.7 (1.1–2.4) 0.01 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 0.01
 Frailty score
 0–2 1   1  
 3–4 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 0.05 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 0.05
 5–6 2.9 (1.4–6.2) 0.005 2.9 (1.4–6.1) 0.006
 7 or more 4.7 (2.3–9.8) < 0.001 4.4 (2.1–9.4) < 0.001
Moderate or severe distress of ≥1 medication side effect
 Polypharmacy 1.9 (1.3–2.8) 0.002 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.57
 Frailty score
 0–2 1    
 3–4 1.4 (0.5–3.6) 0.54 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 0.55
 5–6 2.8 (1.1–6.9) 0.03 2.7 (1.1–6.8) 0.03
 7 or more 5.7 (2.4–13.6) < 0.001 5.4 (2.2–13.4) < 0.001
≥1 Fall in previous 12 months
 Polypharmacy 1.6 (0.9–2.9) 0.09 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.90
 Protease inhibitor based regimen 1.9 (1.0–3.6) 0.06 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 0.03
 Frailty score
 0–2 1   1  
 3–4 2.3 (0.5–10.0) 0.29 2.3 (0.5–10.4) 0.28
 5–6 5.1 (1.2–21.3) 0.02 5.2 (1.2–22.3) 0.02
 7 or more 9.0 (2.2–36.6) 0.002 7.8 (1.9–32.4) 0.005
 Cognitive status (using MMSEa)
 Normal cognition 1   1  
 Mild cognitive decline 2.4 (1.2–4.6) 0.009 2.0 (1.1–3.9) 0.03
 Moderate cognitive decline 4.1 (2.4–6.8) < 0.001 3.6 (2.2–5.9) < 0.001
 Severe cognitive decline 1.4 (0.5–4.4) 0.53 1.1 (0.4–3.4) 0.87
  1. aMini Mental State Examination, PR Prevalence Ratio