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Table 2 Characteristics of study participants by polypharmacy (univariate analyses)

From: Polypharmacy among HIV positive older adults on anti-retroviral therapy attending an urban clinic in Uganda

Characteristic Polypharmacy n (%) No Polypharmacy n (%) Unadjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI)
Sex
 Male 17 (10) 155 (90) 1
 Female 46 (19) 193 (81) 1.9 (1.2–3.3)
Age (years)
 50–54 22 (13) 148 (87) 1
 55–59 12 (9) 116 (91) 0.7 (0.4–1.4)
 60–64 11 (18) 49 (82) 1.4 (0.7–2.7)
  ≥ 65 18 (34) 35 (66) 2.6 (1.5–4.5)
Residence
 Own 50 (18) 223 (82) 1
 Rented 5 (6) 73 (94) 0.4 (0.1–0.8)
 Other 8 (13) 52 (87) 0.7 (0.4–1.5)
Approximate distance from clinic (km)
 0–4.9 5 (12%) 36 (88%) 1
 5–9.9 13 (22%) 46 (78%) 1.8 (0.7–4.7)
 10–14.9 7 (9%) 72 (91%) 0.7 (0.3–2.2)
  ≥ 15 38 (16%) 194 (84%) 1.3 (0.6–3.2)
Marital status
 Married 20 (13%) 129 (87%) 1
 Widowed 29 (19%) 123 (81%) 1.5 (0.9–2.5)
 Divorced 14 (14%) 87 (86%) 1.1 (0.6–2.1)
 Single 0 (0%) 8 (100%) Not applicable
Living arrangements
 Lives alone 8 (15) 46 (85) 1
 Lives with others 55 (15) 302 (85) 1.0 (0.5–1.9)
Education level
 Illiterate 5 (16) 26 (84) 1
 Primary 30 (16) 163 (84) 1.0 (0.4–2.3)
 Secondary 16 (14) 99 (86) 0.9 (0.3–2.2)
 Tertiary 12 (17) 60 (83) 1.0 (0.4–2.7)
Source of income
 Active 48 (15) 280 (85) 1
 Passive 15 (18) 68 (82) 0.8 (0.5–1.4)
Hospitalisations in previous year
 None 51 (13) 329 (87) 1
 One or more 12 (39) 19 (61) 2.9 (1.7–4.8)
Prescribing cadre
 Nurse 4 (9) 40 (91) 1
 Physician assistant 25 (12) 177 (88) 1.4 (0.5–3.7)
 General medical officer 28 (19) 123 (81) 2.0 (0.8–5.5)
 Internist 6 (67) 3 (33) 7.3 (2.6–20.8)
Duration since Highly Active Anti – Retroviral Therapy commenced
  < 5 years 18 (12%) 127 (88%) 1
  ≥ 5 years 36 (15%) 201 (85%) 1.2 (0.7–2.1)
Charlson’s weighted comorbidity score
 0 29 (10%) 253 (90%) 1
 1 23 (22%) 82 (78%) 2.1 (1.3–3.5)
  ≥ 2 11 (46%) 13 (54%) 4.5 (2.6–7.8)
Frailty index score
 0–2 1 (2) 62 (98) 1
 3–4 8 (6) 132 (94) 3.6 (0.5–28.2)
 5–6 22 (19) 95 (81) 11.8 (1.6–85.8)
  ≥ 7 32 (35) 59 (65) 22.2 (3.1–157.9)
  1. CI Confidence Interval, Km Kilometres