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Table 3 Relative Risk Ratios for cardiological polypharmacy by gender, socioeconomic factors and disease burden

From: The prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy at age 69: a British birth cohort study

  Gender Adjusted Relative Risk Ratios Model One Model Two
RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p
No Medication (reference) (reference) (reference)
Monotherapy (1 Med)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    0.303 (reference)    0.245 (reference)    0.043
  Female 0.9 0.7 1.1   0.9 0.7 1.1   0.8 0.6 1.0  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    0.008 (reference)    0.003 (reference)    0.004
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.6 0.5 0.9   0.6 0.4 0.8   0.6 0.4 0.8  
 A-Level or Higher 0.7 0.5 0.9   0.6 0.4 0.8   0.6 0.4 0.8  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.933 (reference)    0.189 (reference)    0.116
 Non-Manual 1.0 0.8 1.3   1.2 0.9 1.7   1.3 0.9 1.8  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 1.7 1.2 2.3       1.7 1.3 2.4  
 Two 1.9 1.3 2.8       2.0 1.4 3.0  
 Three or More 4.9 3.2 7.4    0.9 1.7   5.4 3.5 8.3  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    0.950      (reference)    0.090
 Limiting Condition 1.0 0.7 1.4       0.8 0.6 1.0  
Polypharmacy (2–4 Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
  Female 0.7 0.5 0.8   0.6 0.5 0.8   0.5 0.4 0.6  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)     (reference)    < 0.001
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.7 0.5 0.9   0.7 0.5 0.9 < 0.001 0.7 0.5 1.0  
 A-Level or Higher 0.5 0.4 0.7   0.5 0.4 0.7   0.5 0.4 0.7  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.027 (reference)    0.880 (reference)    0.626
 Non-Manual 0.8 0.6 1.0   1.0 0.8 1.3   1.1 0.8 1.4  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 7.4 5.0 10.8       7.2 4.9 10.6  
 Two 13.4 8.8 20.2       13.3 8.8 20.2  
 Three or More 40.2 25.6 63.2       39.5 24.8 62.3  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    0.923
 Limiting Condition 1.8 1.5 2.3       1.0 0.8 1.3  
Extreme Polypharmacy (5+ Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
  Female 0.4 0.2 0.6   0.4 0.2 0.6   0.3 0.2 0.4  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.4 0.2 0.6   0.4 0.2 0.7   0.4 0.2 0.8  
 A-Level or Higher 0.3 0.2 0.4   0.3 0.2 0.5   0.3 0.2 0.5  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.001 (reference)    0.305 (reference)    0.852
 Non-Manual 0.5 0.3 0.7   0.8 0.5 1.3   1.0 0.6 1.6  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 3.2 1.1 9.2       3.0 1.0 8.6  
 Two 13.6 5.0 36.6       11.8 4.3 32.2  
 Three or More 86.5 33.1 226.3       66.8 25.0 178.5  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    0.056
 Limiting Condition 4.0 2.6 6.2       1.6 1.0 2.6  
  1. Model One: Gender, Education & Social Class. Model Two: Gender, Education, Social Class, Disease Burden & Severity
  2. Risk ratios rounded to a single decimal place