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Table 2 Relative Risk Ratios for total polypharmacy by gender, socioeconomic factors and disease burden

From: The prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy at age 69: a British birth cohort study

  Gender Adjusted Relative Risk Ratios Model One Model Two
  RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p
No Medication (reference) (reference) (reference)
No Polypharmacy (1–4 Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    0.870 (reference)    0.496 (reference)    0.125
  Female 1.0 0.8 1.2   0.9 0.7 1.2   0.8 0.6 1.1  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    0.011 (reference)    0.010 (reference)    0.017
 Vocational or O-Level Level 1.0 0.7 1.3   1.0 0.7 1.3   1.0 0.7 1.4  
 A-Level or Higher 0.7 0.5 0.9   0.7 0.5 0.9   0.7 0.5 0.9  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.624 (reference)    0.592 (reference)    0.498
 Non-Manual 0.9 0.7 1.2   1.1 0.8 1.5   1.1 0.8 1.5  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 3.2 2.5 4.2       3.1 2.4 4.1  
 Two 6.9 4.6 10.2       6.5 4.3 9.6  
 Three or More 9.9 5.7 17.4       8.9 5.1 15.7  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 2.7 1.9 3.9       2.1 1.4 3.0  
Polypharmacy (5–8 Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    0.937 (reference)    0.595 (reference)    0.044
  Female 1.0 0.7 1.3   0.9 0.7 1.2   0.7 0.5 1.0  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.8 0.5 1.0   0.7 0.5 1.1   0.7 0.5 1.2  
 A-Level or Higher 0.3 0.2 0.5   0.4 0.2 0.5   0.3 0.2 0.5  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.001 (reference)    0.290 (reference)    0.853
 Non-Manual 0.6 0.4 0.8   0.8 0.6 1.2   1.0 0.6 1.4  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 6.6 4.0 10.8       5.8 3.5 9.5  
 Two 22.0 12.4 39.0       18.1 10.1 32.3  
 Three or More 93.0 47.4 82.3       67.0 33.8 132.9  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 7.7 5.2 11.4       4.6 3.0 7.0  
Extreme Polypharmacy (9 + Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    0.496 (reference)    0.499 (reference)    0.072
  Female 0.9 0.5 1.3   0.9 0.5 1.4   0.6 0.4 1.0  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.5 0.3 0.8   0.5 0.3 1.0   0.6 0.3 1.1  
 A-Level or Higher 0.2 0.1 0.4   0.3 0.1 0.5   0.2 0.1 0.5  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    0.046 (reference)    0.390
 Non-Manual 0.4 0.2 0.6   0.6 0.4 1.0   0.8 0.4 1.4  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 2.1 0.6 7.0       1.6 0.5 5.6  
 Two 19.0 6.5 55.7       13.6 4.5 40.5  
 Three or More 201.9 70.7 576.7       109.9 37.6 321.1  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 21.8 12.6 38.0       10.6 5.9 19.3  
  1. Model One: Gender, Education & Social Class. Model Two: Gender, Education, Social Class, Disease Burden & Severity Risk ratios rounded to a single decimal place