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Table 1 Participant Characteristics

From: A pathway from low socioeconomic status to dementia in Japan: results from the Toyama dementia survey

    Presence of dementia  
Dementia (n = 137) No dementia (n = 1039) P
n % n %
Attribution Age 65–74 17 12.4 552 53.1 < 0.001
  75–84 52 38.0 371 35.7  
  ≥85 68 49.6 116 11.2  
Sex Male 57 41.6 453 43.6 0.714
  Female 80 58.4 586 56.4  
Educational attainment Years of education ≤6 years 36 26.3 42 4.0 < 0.001
7–9 years 42 30.7 388 37.3
  ≥10 years 59 43.1 609 58.6  
Occupations Occupations held White collar 41 29.9 427 41.1 0.013
  Blue collar 58 42.3 375 36.1  
  Both 22 16.1 174 16.7  
  Other 16 11.7 63 6.1  
Lifestyle Alcohol consumption habits Current drinker 21 15.3 367 35.3 < 0.001
  Former drinker 33 24.1 80 7.7  
  Nondrinker 83 60.6 592 57.0  
Smoking habits Current smoker 6 4.4 102 9.8 0.050
  Former smoker 33 24.1 287 27.6  
  Nonsmoker 98 71.5 650 62.6  
Medical history Diabetes Yes 35 25.5 155 14.9 0.003
Hyperlipidemia Yes 19 13.9 188 18.1 0.282
Depression Yes 3 2.2 18 1.7 0.727
Schizophrenia Yes 0 0.0 4 0.4 1.000
Parkinson’s disease Yes 7 5.1 10 1.0 0.002
Eye disease Yes 30 21.9 222 21.4 0.912
Ear disease Yes 4 2.9 44 4.2 0.646
Hypertension Yes 59 43.1 489 47.1 0.413
Stroke Yes 26 19.0 77 7.4 < 0.001
Angina pectoris/ cardiovascular disease Yes 25 18.2 81 7.8 < 0.001
Asthma Yes 2 1.5 25 2.4 0.761
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Yes 1 0.7 9 0.9 1.000
Digestive system disease Yes 17 12.4 119 11.5 0.776
Dental disease/oral disease Yes 10 7.3 131 12.6 0.092
Rheumatoid arthritis Yes 2 1.5 29 2.8 0.569
Arthrosis Yes 14 10.2 132 12.7 0.491
Osteoporosis Yes 14 10.2 108 10.4 1.000
Kidney disease Yes 4 2.9 43 4.1 0.645
Prostatic disease Yes 9 6.6 66 6.4 0.854
Gynecologic disease Yes 6 4.4 51 4.9 1.000
Bone fracture Yes 40 29.2 144 13.9 < 0.001
Injury/scald except for bone fracture Yes 11 8.0 62 6.0 0.346
Anemia/blood disease Yes 5 3.6 27 2.6 0.409
Malignant neoplasm Yes 13 9.5 119 11.5 0.566