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Table 1 Participants’ demographic characteristics by malnutrition status: MNA®-SF

From: Dysphagia risk, low muscle strength and poor cognition predict malnutrition risk in older adults at hospital admission

Characteristics   Malnutrition status
*Total Well-nourished At malnutrition risk Malnourished
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
All participants’ 234 (100) 62 (26.5) 109 (46.6) 63 (26.9)
Admission source
 - Community 156 (88.1) 46 (29.5) 70 (44.9) 40 (25.6)
 - Aged carea 21 (11.9) 5 (23.8) 7 (33.3) 9 (42.9)
Age
 - < 85 years 122 (52.1) 32 (26.2) 58 (47.5) 32 (26.2)
 - ≥85 years 112 (47.9) 30 (26.8) 51 (45.5) 31 (27.7)
BMI
 - < 23 kg/m2 95 (40.6)** 9 (9.5) 45 (47.4) 41 (43.2)
 - ≥23 kg/m2 139 (59.4) 53 (38.1) 64 (46.0) 22 (15.8)
Gender
 - Men 95 (40.6) 25 (26.3) 46 (48.4) 24 (25.3)
 - Women 139 (59.4) 37 (26.6) 63 (45.3) 39 (28.1)
Marital status
 - Married/partnered 95 (40.6) 26 (27.4) 42 (44.2) 27 (28.4)
 - Singleb 139 (59.4) 36 (25.9) 67 (48.2) 36 (25.9)
Ethnicity
 - All other ethnicitiesc 87 (37.2) 21 (24.1) 38 (43.7) 28 (32.2)
 - New Zealand European 147 (62.8) 41 (27.9) 71 (48.3) 35 (23.8)
Living arrangements
 - Living alone 104 (44.4) 31 (29.8) 49 (47.1) 24 (23.1)
 - Living with partner only 73 (31.2) 21 (28.8) 32 (43.8) 20 (27.4)
 - Living with others 57 (24.4) 10 (17.5) 28 (49.1) 19 (33.3)
Income source
 - Pension only income 152 (65.0) 37 (24.3) 69 (45.4) 46 (30.3)
 - Pension plus other income 82 (35.0) 25 (30.5) 40 (48.8) 17 (20.7)
Education
 - Primary 52 (22.2) 11 (21.2) 28 (53.8) 13 (25.0)
 - Secondary 144 (61.5) 38 (26.4) 62 (43.1) 44 (30.6)
 - Tertiary 38 (16.2) 13 (34.2) 19 (50.0) 6 (15.8)
  1. BMI body mass index, MNA®-SF Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form
  2. *The percentages (%) in the total column are percentage total. All other percentages are percentage total within a category. All values are reported after rounding up to 1 decimal place, therefore percentages add up to 100 ± 0.1 **Only BMI was statistically significant across nutrition status groups: p < 0.05 Chi-square test of independence
  3. aAged care: admitted from long term residential care (n = 16) or private hospital interim care (n = 5)
  4. bMarital status single: widowed n = 110, divorced n = 15, single/never married n = 14
  5. cOther ethnicities: Māori n = 6, Pacific n = 6, others n = 75