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Table 3 Likelihood of having low health literacy per one standard deviation stronger cognitive decline among older adults, in odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals)

From: Health literacy among older adults is associated with their 10-years’ cognitive functioning and decline - the Doetinchem Cohort Study

  Low health literacy (vs. high)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
Memory decline (n = 723) 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 1.50** (1.13–1.99) 1.40* (1.05–1.88)
Information processing speed decline (n = 728) 1.27 (0.88–1.83) 1.50* (1.03–2.19) 1.29 (0.87–1.91)
Mental flexibility decline (n = 723) 1.19 (0.89–1.60) 1.37* (1.03–1.84) 1.27 (0.93–1.73)
Global cognitive functioning decline (n = 712) 1.10 (0.71–1.71) 1.68* (1.05–2.67) 1.54 (0.95–2.51)
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01
  2. Cognitive decline calculated as the difference between current and past cognitive functioning, with a higher score indicating stronger decline
  3. aAdjusted for age, age squared, and gender
  4. bAdjusted for age, age squared, gender, and past cognitive functioning
  5. cAdjusted for age, age squared, gender, past cognitive functioning, and educational level