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Table 1 Characteristics of the participating women and men with and without diabetes

From: Frequent pain in older people with and without diabetes – Finnish community based study

  Women Men
No diabetes
N = 329
Diabetes
N = 198
P-value No diabetes
N = 275
Diabetes
N = 191
P-value
Age, mean (SD) 75 (7) 77 (8) 0.002 73 (5) 74 (6) 0.26
Living in a detached house, n (%) 256 (78) 144 (73) 0.19 239 (87) 152 (80) 0.034
Living in the countryside, n (%) 90 (28) 54 (29) 0.85 109 (40) 70 (38) 0.60
Living alone, n (%) 132 (40) 95 (48) 0.078 60 (22) 44 (23) 0.76
Physical activity, Kasari-FIT Index, mean (SD) 38 (22) 26 (19) < 0.001 43 (23) 33 (23) < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 16 (5) 6 (3) 0.31 45 (16) 15 (8) 0.007
Alcohol use, AUDIT-C, mean (SD) 1.34 (1.45) 0.92 (1.33) < 0.001 2.92 (2.58) 2.75 (2.35) 0.49
Depressive symptoms, GDS-15, mean (SD) 2.5 (2.8) 3.8 (3.0) < 0.001 2.6 (3.0) 3.1 (3.0) 0.13
Comorbidities, n (%)
 High blood pressure 180 (55) 149 (75) < 0.001 128 (47) 129 (68) < 0.001
 Cardiovascular disease 44 (13) 47 (24) 0.002 45 (16) 40 (21) 0.21
 Cancer 20 (6) 10 (5) 0.62 20 (7) 13 (7) 0.85
 Rheumatoid arthritis 19 (6) 9 (5) 0.54 10 (4) 6 (3) 0.77
 Osteoarthritis 97 (29) 73 (37) 0.079 62 (23) 50 (26) 0.37
 Chronic spine disease 95 (29) 55 (28) 0.79 52 (19) 44 (23) 0.28
 Asthma/COPD 45 (14) 34 (17) 0.28 20 (7) 22 (12) 0.12
 Mental illness 40 (12) 32 (16) 0.20 22 (8) 19 (10) 0.46
 Hypothyroidism 71 (22) 53 (27) 0.17 17 (6) 15 (8) 0.48
Number of comorbidities, mean (SD) 1.9 (1.4) 2.3 (1.5) < 0.001 1.4 (1.3) 1.8 (1.4) 0.002
Any pain, n (%) 236 (72) 163 (82) 0.006 193 (70) 129 (68) 0.054
Pain localization, n (%)
 Low back 120 (36) 83 (42) 0.21 68 (25) 52 (27) 0.54
 Shoulder 71 (22) 74 (34) < 0.001 66 (24) 49 (26) 0.68
 Knee 98 (30) 77 (39) 0.032 60 (22) 43 (23) 0.86
 Hip 81 (25) 64 (32) 0.055 47 (17) 37 (19) 0.53
 Other lower extremity 77 (23) 61 (31) 0.061 44 (16) 36 (19) 0.42
 Neck 101 (31) 54 (27) 0.40 59 (21) 42 (22) 0.89
 Other upper extremity 22 (7) 24 (12) 0.032 15 (5) 10 (5) 0.92
  1. SD Standard deviation, Kasari-FIT index person’s level of physical activity (Frequency, Intensity, Time), Alcohol user alcohol use at least once a month according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease