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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and associations for each DEAP variable with DEAP homelikeness and functionality scores (n = 82 dining rooms)

From: Construct validity of the Dining Environment Audit Protocol: a secondary data analysis of the Making Most of Mealtimes (M3) study

  Homelikeness Functionality
Variable Dining Room %(n) Mean (SD) β P-value Mean (SD) β P-value
% of residents with a clear view of the garden
 ≤ 24% 10.98 (9) 3.56 (0.73) <0.0001d* 4.56 (1.13) 0.11d
 25–49% 4.88 (4) 2.5 (1.73) −1.06 5.5 (0.58) 0.94
 50–74% 25.61 (21) 5.05 (1.20) 1.49 5.10 (0.94) 0.54
 75%+ 58.54 (48) 4.63 (1.36) 1.07 5.5 (1.22) 0.94
Lighting intensity
 Poor 3.66 (3) 6.00 (0) 0.17d 4.33 (0.58) 0.003d*
 Reasonable 47.56 (39) 4.51 (1.40) 1.49 4.95 (1.02) 0.62
 Plenty 48.78 (40) 4.40 (1.43) 1.60 5.7 (1.16) 1.37
Glare
 Strong 10.98 (9) 4.44 (1.01) 0.65 5.56 (1.01) 0.51
 Some 65.85 (54) 4.61 (1.51) 0.17 5.33 (1.05) −0.22
 Minimal 23.17 (19) 4.26 (1.28) −0.18 5.05 (1.47) −0.50
Respecting/ responding to resident opinion on light, noise and temperaturea
 No 40.00 (28) 4.00 (1.39) 0.01d* 4.90 (1.03) 0.01d*
 Yes 60.00 (42) 4.86 (1.39) 0.86 5.55 (0.99) 0.66
Size of dining room
 Institutional 23.17 (19) 4.21 (1.72) 0.35 5.42 (0.96) 0.23d
 Moderate 41.46 (34) 4.77 (1.16) 0.55 5.47 (1.02) 0.05
 Homelike 35.37 (29) 4.41 (1.45) 0.20 5.0 (1.36) −0.42
Pathway length
 Long 18.29 (15) 4.27 (1.87) 0.56 5.4 (1.12) 0.78
 Moderate 46.34 (38) 4.68 (1.19) 0.42 5.34 (1.05) −0.06
 Short 35.37 (29) 4.41 (1.43) 0.15 5.17 (1.31) −0.23
Obstacles/ clutter
 None 36.59 (30) 4.57 (1.28) 0.95 6.03 (0.96) <0.0001d*
 Some 54.88 (45) 4.47 (1.52) −0.10 5.04 (0.90) −0.99
 Several 8.54 (7) 4.57 (1.40) 0.00 3.71 (1.11) −2.32
Physical environment supporting supervision
 Low 9.76 (8) 4.63 (1.30) 0.29 5.13 (1.36) 0.21d
 Moderate 31.71 (26) 4.85 (1.38) 0.22 5.0 (0.89) −0.13
 Good 58.54 (48) 4.31 (1.43) −0.31 5.48 (1.22) 0.35
Mix seating arrangements
 One 42.68 (35) 4.14 (1.56) 0.12d 5.37 (1.24) 0.74
 Few 48.78 (40) 4.8 (1.24) 0.66 5.28 (1.11) −0.10
 Multiple 8.54 (7) 4.71 (1.25) 0.57 5.0 (1.00) −0.37
Adjustable tables
 No 59.76 (49) 4.41 (1.50) 0.42 5.29 (1.21) 0.95
 Yes 40.24 (33) 4.67 (1.27) 0.26 5.30 (1.07) 0.017
Contrast between dish and table
 No 32.10 (26) 4.19 (1.33) 0.19d 5.08 (1.23) 0.22d
 Yes 67.90 (55) 4.64 (1.43) 0.44 5.42 (1.10) 0.34
Contrast between table and floor
 No 47.56 (39) 4.56 (1.27) 0.75 5.21 (1.15) 0.51
 Yes 52.44 (43) 4.47 (1.53) −0.10 5.37 (1.16) 0.17
Rounded edges of furnitureb
 No 45.00 (36) 4.67 (1.46) 0.59 5.67 (0.93) 0.02d*
 Yes 55.00 (44) 4.5 (1.53) −0.17 5.07 (1.21) −0.60
Posted menu
 No 32.93 (27) 3.81 (1.21) 0.001d* 4.93 (1.04) 0.04d*
 Yes 67.07 (55) 4.85 (1.38) 1.04 5.47 (1.17) 0.55
Detergent/ non-edibles secured
 No 4.88 (4) 5.50 (1.29) 0.15d 5.50 (1.29) 0.71
 Yes 95.12 (78) 4.46 (1.40) −1.04 5.28 (1.15) −0.22
Stove and other dangerous items secured
 No 12.20 (10) 5.6 (1.17) 0.01d* 5.8 (0.79) 0.14d
 Yes 87.80 (72) 4.36 (1.38) −1.24 5.22 (1.18) −0.58
Servery / pass through
 No 45.12 (37) 4.41 (1.48) 0.54 5.24 (1.23) 0.73
 Yes 54.88 (45) 4.6 (1.36) 0.19 5.33 (1.09) 0.09
Television
 No 68.29 (56) 4.39 (1.41) 0.26 5.29 (1.22) 0.94
 Yes 31.71 (26) 4.77 (1.39) 0.38 5.31 (1.01) 0.02
Clock
 No 15.85 (13) 3.62 (1.26) 0.01d* 4.69 (1.18) 0.04d*
 Yes 84.15 (69) 4.68 (1.38) 1.07 5.41 (1.12) 0.71
Dining room open between meals
 No 21.95 (18) 4.5 (1.34) 0.97 5.39 (0.98) 0.69
 Yes 78.05 (64) 4.52 (1.44) 0.016 5.27 (1.20) −0.12
Adjacent family kitchen
 No 73.17 (60) 4.56 (1.38) 0.69 5.28 (1.21) 0.90
 Yes 26.83 (22) 4.41 (1.50) −0.14 5.32 (0.99) 0.03
Short distance from most bedrooms
 No 79.27 (65) 4.71 (1.37) 0.01d* 5.31 (1.16) 0.82
 Yes 20.73 (17) 3.76 (1.35) −0.94 5.24 (1.15) −0.07
Private family dining area
 No 65.85 (54) 4.39 (1.45) 0.27 5.17 (1.21) 0.17d
 Yes 34.15 (28) 4.75 (1.32) 0.36 5.54 (1.00) 0.36
Accessible washrooms near dining roomb
 No 46.25 (37) 4.32 (1.43) 0.41 5.16 (1.43) 0.28
 Yes 53.75 (43) 4.58 (1.35) 0.26 5.44 (1.16) 0.28
Dining rooms visually accessible from most bedrooms
 No 96.34 (79) 4.58 (1.37) 0.02d* 5.37 (1.10) 0.002d*
 Yes 3.66(3) 2.67 (1.15) −1.92 3.33 (0.58) −2.03
Accessible beverage service
 No 57.32 (47) 4.34 (1.54) 0.20d 5.13 (1.21) 0.14d
 Yes 42.68 (35) 4.74 (1.20) 0.40 5.51 (1.04) 0.39
Accessible main kitchen/ servery
 No 73.17 (60) 4.55 (1.41) 0.69 5.40 (1.11) 0.16d
 Yes 26.83 (22) 4.41 (1.44) −0.14 5.00 (1.23) −0.40
Use of restraintsc
 No 53.42 (39) 4.59 (1.46) 0.28 5.56 (0.94) 0.06d
 Yes 46.58 (34) 4.24 (1.28) −0.35 5.06 (1.28) −0.51
Continuous Variables
Variables Mean (SD) {Tertile Range} Correlation β P-Value Correlation β P-Value
Ease of pathway total score 6.57 (1.59) {4,6,9} 0.01 0.02 0.81 0.17 1.10 0.30
# of tables 9.82 (6.11) {0,8,31} 0.07 0.02 0.50 0.01 11.02 0.29
# of stools 2.66 (3.03) {0,2,12} 0.12 0.04 0.42 0.05 1.14 0.94
# of chairs 13.68 (7.92) {0,12,38} 0.20 0.04 0.05d* 0.09 0.00 0.12d
# of exits 2.80 (1.44) {1,2, 9} −0.11 −0.12 0.24 0.29 2.36 0.01d*
  1. Abbreviations: n number of dining rooms, SD standard deviation
  2. an = 70 due to the removal of the “unknown” category
  3. bn = 80 due to missing data
  4. cn = 73 due to the removal of the “unknown” category
  5. dVariable included in regression analysis as p < 0.25
  6. *indicate a p-value of <0.05