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Table 5 Associations between models of residential care and costs of potentially inappropriate medications: two-part models

From: Costs of potentially inappropriate medication use in residential aged care facilities

  Unadjusted Adjusteda
  β (95% CI) P-value β (95% CI) P-value
All participants
 First part: logistic regression model
  Residing in a home-like model of care −0.569 (−1.054, −0.085) 0.021 −0.735 (−1.283, −0.188) 0.008
 Second part: log-normal linear model
  Residing in a home-like model of care −0.191 (−0.461, 0.078) 0.165 −0.277 (−0.570, 0.016) 0.064
Participants with cognitive impairment or dementia
 First part: logistic regression model
  Residing in a home-like model of care −0.654 (−1.15, 0.160) 0.010 −0.724 (−1.280, −0.169) 0.011
 Second part: log-normal linear model
  Residing in a home-like model of care −0.194 (−0.457, 0.068) 0.147 −0.284 (−0.567, 0.002) 0.051
  1. Reference group is participants residing in a standard Australian model of care
  2. aTwo-part-models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, activities of daily living as measured by the modified Barthel Index, social interactions, number of comorbidities, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores and PAS-Cog scores
  3. PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults
  4. Participants with cognitive impairment and dementia: sub-group analysis which only includes participants with a PAS-Cog score > 4 or a formal diagnosis of dementia exposed to a PIM in the 12 month period; PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults and the additional list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for people with cognitive impairment and dementia
  5. All costs are based on Dispensed Price for Maximum Quantity (DPMQ) pricing from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)