Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Associations between exposure to potentially inappropriate medications and total medication costs: log transformed linear regression models

From: Costs of potentially inappropriate medication use in residential aged care facilities

  β (95% CI) P-value
All participants
 Exposed to a PIM, Unadjusted model 0.333 (0.261, 0.406) <0.001
 Exposed to a PIM, Adjusted modela 0.307 (0.235, 0.379) <0.001
Participants with cognitive impairment or dementia
 Exposed to a PIM, Unadjusted model 0.341 (0.264, 0.417) <0.001
 Exposed to a PIM, Adjusted modela 0.319 (0.243, 0.395) <0.001
  1. Reference group is participants not exposed to a PIM
  2. aLog transformed linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, activities of daily living as measured by the modified Barthel Index, social interactions, number of comorbidities, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores and PAS-Cog scores
  3. PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults
  4. Participants with cognitive impairment and dementia: sub-group analysis includes participants with a PAS-Cog score > 4 or a formal diagnosis of dementia exposed to a PIM in the 12 month period; PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults and the additional list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for people with cognitive impairment and dementia
  5. All costs are based on Dispensed Price for Maximum Quantity (DPMQ) pricing from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)