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Table 2 Number of participants prescribed potentially inappropriate medications over a 12 month period

From: Costs of potentially inappropriate medication use in residential aged care facilities

PIM All participantsa (n = 533), n % Participants with cognitive impairment and dementiab (n = 461), n (%)
Any PIM 434 (81.4) 375 (81.3)
Antidepressants 34 (6.4) 22 (4.8)
Antiemetic n/a 26 (5.6)
Antihistaminesc 3 (0.6) 11 (2.4)
Anti-infective 27 (5.1) 24 (5.2)
Antimuscarinics n/a 13 (2.8)
Antiparkinsonian agents 2 (0.4) 1 (0.2)
Antispasmodics 2 (0.4) 2 (0.4)
Antipsychotics 163 (30.6) 157 (34.1)
Antithrombotics 14 (2.6) 11 (2.4)
Benzodiazepines 202 (37.9) 166 (36.0)
Cardiovasculard 40 (7.5) 35 (7.6)
Central alpha blockers 6 (1.1) 5 (1.1)
Endocrine 52 (9.8) 41 (8.9)
Gastrointestinale 51 (9.6) 42 (9.1)
H2-receptor antagonists n/a 12 (2.6)
Pain medications 29 (5.4) 24 (5.2)
Peripheral alpha-1 blockers 8 (1.5) 6 (1.3)
Proton-pump inhibitors 225 (42.2) 183 (39.7)
  1. aIncludes all study participants with complete medication data and PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults
  2. bParticipants with cognitive impairment and dementia: sub-group analysis which only includes participants with a PAS-Cog score > 4 or a formal diagnosis of dementia and the PIMs were based on the standard list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for all older adults and the additional list of PIMs from the Beers Criteria for people with cognitive impairment and dementia. cFirst generation antihistamines only considered for PIMs for older adults; ddigoxin, nifedipine and amiodarone; emetoclopramide