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Table 5 Standard Set of Outcome Domains for Older People

From: Standard set of health outcome measures for older persons

Tiers Outcome Domains Supporting Information Suggested Data Sources
Tier 1 Overall Survival All cause survival Administartive data
Place of Death Whether a preferred place to die has been expressed, the patient died in their usual place of residence and whether they died in their preferred place of death (if previously expressed) Clinical data
Frailty Tracked via the Canadian Study on Health & Aging Clinical Frailty Scale Clinical data
Tier 2 PolypharmacyS190-191 Includes the total number of prescribed medications, adverse drug events and whether medications make the patient unwell Clinical data, Patient reported
FallsS192 How many falls has the patient sustained in the last 12 months and how many falls have resulted in a fracture, need for any professional medical attention and hospitalization Clinical data, Patient reported
Particiapation in decision making Includes confidence in; ability to cope with own health, role as participant in care (involved in discussions, planning) and healthcare professionals. Also includes the experience of having been treated with dignity and respect, coordination of care and discharge to place of choice Patient reported
Time spent in hospital Number of hospital admissions, readmissions and total time spent in hospital over a year Administrative data
Tier 3 Loneliness and isolation S193 Tracked via the UCLA- 3-item scale Patient reported
Activities of daily livingS194-195 Includes mobility and limitations to activities of daily living and tracked via the SF-36 and gait speed Clinical data, Patient reported
PainS196 Tracked via the SF-36 Patient reported
Mood and emotional healthS197 Tracked via the SF-36 Patient reported
Autonomy and controlS198 How much control the patient has over their daily life tracked via the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit Patient reported
Carer burdenS199 Carer reported burden tracked via the 4-item screening Zarit Burden Interview Carer reported
  1. Key to Table 5
  2. UCLA University of California, Los Angeles -3 Item Scale [59]
  3. SF36 Short Form (36) Health Survey [60]
  4. ASCOT Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit [61]
  5. ZBI Zarit Burden Interview [62]
  6. CSHACFS Canadian Study of Health and Ageing Clinical Frailty Scale [63]
  7. Polypharmacy
  8. S190. Tjia J, Velten SJ, Parsons C et al. Studies to reduce unnecessary medication use in frail older adults: a systematic review. Drugs Aging 2013;30(5):285-307
  9. S191. Shrank WH, Polinski JM, Avorn J. Quality indicators for medication use in vulnerable elders. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55 Suppl 2: S373-82
  10. Falls
  11. S192. Chang JT, Ganz DA. Quality indicators for falls and mobility problems in vulnerable elders. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55 Suppl 2: S327-34
  12. Loneliness and isolation
  13. S193. Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC et al. A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: Results from two population-based studies. Res Aging 2004;26(6):655–672
  14. Activities of daily living
  15. S194. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36). Available at http://www.rand.org/health/surveys_tools/mos/36-item-short-form.html Accessed on the 13 November 2016
  16. S7195. Peel NM, Kuys SS, Klein K. Gait speed as a measure in geriatric assessment in clinical settings: a systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2013;68(1):39-46
  17. Pain
  18. S196. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36). Available at http://www.rand.org/health/surveys_tools/mos/36-item-short-form.html Accessed on the 13 November 2016
  19. Mood and emotional health
  20. S197. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36). Available at: http://www.rand.org/health/surveys_tools/mos/36-item-short-form.html Accessed on the 13 November 2016
  21. Autonomy and control
  22. S198. Available at: http://www.pssru40.org.uk/ascot Accessed on the 13 November 2016
  23. Carer burden
  24. S199. Bedard M, Molloy DW, Squire L et al. The Zarit Burden Interview: a new short version and screening version. Gerontologist 2001;41: 652-657