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Table 3 Changes in the CaMos Frailty Index (CFI) score per a 5-year period in participants aged 50+ years

From: Osteoporotic fractures and obesity affect frailty progression: a longitudinal analysis of the Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study

Parameter Women (N = 5566) Men (N = 2187)
Mean Estimate (95% CI) Mean Estimate (95% CI)
Time Year 10 −0.095 (−0.201; 0.010) −0.008 (−0.010;-0.010)
Year 5 −0.019 (−0.115;0.078) −0.050 (−0.050;-0.050)
Baseline (ref) 0.000 0.000
Age, years > = 80 −0.005 (−0.073;0.063) 0.061 (0.027;0.095)
65–80 −0.030 (−0.097;0.037) 0.059 (0.037;0.081)
50–65 (ref) 0.000 0.000
Time*age Year 10 > = 80 0.112 (0.003–0.220) 0.078 (0.038;0.118)
65–80 0.105 (−0.001;0.210) 0.029 (0.020;0.037)
50–65 (ref) 0.000 0.000
Year 5 > = 80 0.039 (−0.061;0.138) 0.100 (0.060;0.139)
65–80 0.046 (−0.051;0.143) 0.082 (0.075;0.089)
50–65 (ref) 0.000 0.000
Baseline (ref) > = 80 0.000 0.000
65–80 0.000 0.000
50–65 0.000 0.000
Prevalent fracture NHNVF 0.003 (−0.005;0.012) 0.004 (−0.013;0.021)
Clinical VF −0.011 (−0.034;0.012) 0.044 (0.010;0.078)
Hip 0.029 (0.001;0.056) 0.032 (−0.007;0.070)
None (ref) 0.000 0.000
Incident fracture NHNVF 0.013 (−0.002;0.029) 0.034 (−0.006;0.073)
Clinical VF 0.053 (0.022;0.084) 0.010 (−0.066;0.086)
Hip 0.067 (0.026;0.109) 0.121 (0.082;0.161)
None (ref) 0.000 0.000
Caucasian, yes 0.003 (−0.011;0.017) −0.006 (−0.029;0.017)
Body mass index (BMI), kg/m2 > = 40 0.071 (0.040;0.102) 0.051 (0.025;0.078)
30–40 0.022 (0.013;0.030) 0.020 (0.005;0.036)
25–30 0.008 (0.001;0.014) 0.010 (−0.002;0.021)
<18.5 −0.013 (−0.031;0.005) 0.044 (−0.028;0.116)
18.5–25 (ref) 0.000 0.000
Physical activity (per 1000 kilocals/week) −0.002 (−0.002;-0.001) 0.000 (−0.001;0.001)
Sedentary lifestyle, hours/day 0.001 (0.000;0.002) −0.002 (−0.004;0.000)
Total calcium intake (per 1200 mg/day) 0.003 (−0.003;0.009) 0.002 (−0.009;0.012)
Total vitamin D intake (per 800 /day) 0.000 (−0.001;0.001) −0.006 (−0.012;0.000)
MMSE score (per 3.72 point change) −0.010 (−0.017;-0.003) −0.004 (−0.017;0.008)
SF-36 - Physical subscale (per 5 unit change) −0.031 (−0.032;-0.029) −0.030 (−0.03;-0.03)
SF-36 - Mental subscale (per 5 unit change) −0.015 (−0.016;-0.013) −0.018 (−0.021;-0.014)
Education: University or higher, yes −0.003 (−0.010;0.004) −0.012 (−0.022;-0.001)
Smoking Never −0.002 (−0.013;0.008) −0.016 (−0.038;0.006)
Past 0.010 (0.000;0.021) −0.005 (−0.026;0.016)
Current (ref) 0.000 0.000
Alcohol, drinks per day > = 3 −0.016 (−0.046;0.014) −0.015 (−0.036;0.006)
1 to 3 −0.003 (−0.013;0.006) −0.001 (−0.015;0.013)
<1 to >0 −0.007 (−0.013;−0.001) 0.008 (−0.005;0.020)
None (ref) 0.000 0.000
Employment Unemployed -0.001 (−0.032;0.030) −0.015 (−0.054;0.025)
Retired −0.004 (−0.020;0.013) −0.009 (−0.023;0.006)
Homemaker 0.002 (−0.015;0.018) 0·00
Employed (ref) 0.000 0·00
Living alone, yes 0.003 (−0.003;0.009) 0.015 (0.002;0.028)
BMD T-score at baseline 0.002 (−0.001;0.006) −0.004 (−0.010;0.002)
Antiresorptive treatment at baseline, yes 0.000 (−0.007;0.008) −0.049 (−0.101;0.002)
Antiresorptive treatment at year 10, yes 0.004 (−0.002;0.010) 0.025 (0.008;0.042)
Falls in past month, yes 0.003 (−0.010;0.015) 0.018 (−0.007;0.042)
Ever confined to bed (immobilized), yes 0.000 (−0.010;0.009) 0.010 (−0.004;0.023)
Ever lost more than 10 pounds, yes 0.005 (−0.001;0.010) 0.005 (−0.005;0.015)
  1. CaMos the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study; Estimates are regression coefficients denote the mean change (increase or decrease) in CFI scores per a 5-year period for one unit change/category in a predictor value; CI confidence interval, Ref the reference group; Bolded font style suggest a statistically significant result at a alpha 0.05 level (p-value <0.05), Time variables represent frailty assessment occasions (waves); The time*age interaction describes changes in frailty for different age groups; NHNVF non-hip non-clinical vertebral fractures, VF clinical vertebral fractures, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination. Note: The estimates were rounded to the third decimal and may appear inexact