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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the examined cohorts

From: Osteoporotic fractures and obesity affect frailty progression: a longitudinal analysis of the Canadian multicentre osteoporosis study

Baseline characteristics Whole sample No prior fracture With prior fracture (N = 1574)
Total (N = 7753)a Women (N = 5566) Men (N = 2187) Total
(N = 6162)
Women
(N = 4348)
Men
(N = 1814)
Total
(N = 1574)b
Women
(N = 1206)
Men
(N = 368)
Demographic characteristics
Age, years: Mean (SD) 66.7 (9.4) 66.8 (9.3) 66.3 (9.5) 66.2 (9.3) 66.2 (9.2) 66.2 (9.5) 68.4 (9.3) 68.9 (9.2) 66.6 (9.4)
Age group: n (%)
 50 to <65 3205 (42) 2263 (41) 942 (43) 2678 (43) 1892 (43) 780 (43) 523 (33.2) 369 (30.6) 154 (41.9)
 65 to <80 3828 (49) 2780 (50) 1048 (48) 2947 (48) 2080 (48) 867 (48) 872 (55.4) 693 (57.5) 179 (48.6)
  ≥ 80 72 (9) 523 (9) 197 (9) 537 (9) 376 (9) 161 (9) 179 (11.4) 144 (11.9) 35 (9.5)
Females: n (%) 5566 (72) 5566 (72) 0 (0) 4348 (71) 4348 (100) 0 (0) 1206 (77) 1206 (100) 0 (0)
Education (some university or higher): n (%) 1899 (24) 1166 (21) 733 (33) 1476 (24) 871 (20) 605 (33) 421 (26.8) 295 (24.5) 126 (34.2)
Caucasians: n (%) 7405 (96) 5361 (96) 2044 (93) 5852 (95) 4164 (96) 1688 (93) 1536 (97.6) 1185 (98.3) 351 (95.4)
Employment: n (%)
 Employed (FT, PT) 1711 (22) 1087 (19) 624 (28) 1426 (23) 911 (21) 515 (28) 282 (17.9) 175 (14·5) 107 (29.1)
 Homemaker 1433 (18) 1431 (26) 2 (1) 1121 (18) 1119 (26) 2·0 (0.1) 306 (19.4) 306 (25.4) 0 (0)
 Retired 4250 (55) 2826 (51) 110 (65) 3321 (54) 2136 (49) 1185(65) 921 (58.5) 685 (56·8) 236 (64.1)
 Unemployed, disability, other 357 (5) 220 (4) 137 (6) 292 (5) 180 (4) 112 (6) 65 (4.2) 40 (3·3) 25 (6.8)
Living alone: n (%) 2573 (33) 2069 (37) 504 (23) 1939 (31) 1528 (35) 411 (23) 630 (40) 538 (44·6) 92 (25)
Anthropometric and lifestyle factors
 Body Mass Index [BMI], kg/m2: Mean (SD) 27.1 (4.8) 27.0 (5.1) 27.2 (4.0) 27.1 (4.7) 27.0 (5.0) 27.2 (4.0) 27.1 (4.9) 27.1 (5.2) 27.0 (3.8)
Body Mass Index (kg/m2): number (%)
 Underweight: BMI < 18.5 130 (2) 112 (2) 18 (1) 90 (2) 74 (2) 16 (0.9) 40 (2.6) 21 (1.8) 2 (1)
 Normal weight: BMI: 18.5 to <25.0 2529 (34) 1926 (36) 603 (28) 2055 (34) 1549 (37) 506 (28·7) 470 (31) 267 (23) 97 (26)
 Overweight: BMI: 25.0 to <30.0 3115 (41) 2046 (38) 1069 (50) 2456 (41) 1582 (37) 874 (49·5) 652 (43) 460(40) 192(52)
 Obesity, class I-III: 30.0 to <40.0 1644 (22) 1217 (23) 427 (20) 1307 (22) 947 (22) 360 (20·4) 332 (22) 373 (32) 65 (18)
 Obesity, class IV: ≥ 40.0 106 (1) 93 (1) 13 (1) 82 (1) 72 (2) 10 (0·6) 24 (1.6) 38(3) 3(1)
Ever lost 10 pounds: number (%) 3897 (50) 2854 (51) 1043 (48) 3036 (49) 2193 (50) 843 (41) 850 (54) 653 (54) 197 (54)
Physical activity, all exercise (kilocal/week): Mean (SD) 4354.6 (3634.9) 4123.4 (3156.3) 4937.8 (4581.8) 4402.2 (3599.1) 4187.5 (3150.9) 4917.3 (4454.3) 4163 (3780) 3887.4 (3174) 5053 (5191)
Strenuous exercise- jogging, bicycling, tennis, swimming (kilocal/week): Mean (SD) 304.5 (1134.6) 222.5 (842.5) 512·5 (1640.9) 306·7 (1105.7) 229.3 (846.6) 492·4 (1545.1) 298.1 (1247.3) 198.4 (830.4) 619.9 (2056)
Vigorous exercise -moving heavy furniture, shoveling, weight lifting (kilocal/week):
 Mean (SD) 411.3 (1798.7) 196.5 (1042.0) 956.5 (2877.5) 432.2 (1831.5) 206.1 (1026.1) 974.4 (2908.6) 330.6 (1669) 163.1 (1103) 871.7 (2736)
Moderate exercise- housework, brisk walking, golfing, bowling, gardening (kilocal/week):
 Mean (SD) 3637.7 (2894.8) 3704.2 (2812.7) 3468.9 (3087.7) 3663.2 (2903.5) 3751.8 (2834.4) 3450.8 (3053.1) 3534.4 (2866.6) 3525.9 (2731.8) 3561.8 (3268.5)
Smoking: n (%)
 Non-smoker 3590 (46) 2956 (53) 634 (29) 2837 (46) 2314 (53) 523 (29) 746 (47) 636 (53) 110 (30)
 Past smoker 3054 (39) 1855 (33) 119 (55) 2450 (40) 1450 (33) 1000(55) 597(38) 402(33) 195(53)
 Current smoker 1107 (14) 754 (14) 353 (16) 874 (14) 583 (14) 291 (16) 230 (15) 168 (14) 62 (17)
Alcohol consumption, drinks per year 150.4 (304.9) 102.1 (211.8) 273.3 (441.0) 151.7 (306.8) 100.4 (210.7) 274.5 (438) 145.2 (296.7) 108.6 (216.2) 265.4 (453)
Alcohol consumption per day: n(%)
 None 3296 (42) 2643 (48) 653 (30) 2601 (42.2) 2064 (47.5) 537(29.6) 687(43.7) 572(47.3) 115(31.3)
 0–1 3082 (40) 2204 (40) 878 (40) 2452 (39.8) 1724 (39.7) 728(40.1) 625(39.7) 477(39.6) 148(40.2)
 1–3 1176 (15) 674 (12) 502 (23) 953 (15.5) 533 (12.3) 420 (23.2) 220 (14.0) 139 (11.5) 81 (22.0)
  ≥ 3 199 (3) 45 (1) 154 (7) 156 (2.5) 27 (0.6) 129 (7.1) 42 (2.7) 18 (1.5) 24 (6.5)
Bone and overall health
 BMD T-score at the femoral neck, baseline: Mean (SD) −1.5 (1.0) −1.6 (1.0) −1.2 (0.8) −1.4 (1.0) −1.6 (1.0) −1.2 (0.8) −1.8 (1.0) −2.0 (1.0) −1.4 (0.85)
 Baseline low trauma fracture, excluding head, toe and finger fractures: n (%) 1574 (20) 1206 (22) 368 (17) NA NA NA 1574 (100) 1206 (100) 368 (100)
 Mean number of comorbiditiesc, Mean (SD) 1.3 (1.3) 1.5 (1.3) 1.3 (1.3) 1.3 (1.3) 1.4 (1.3) 1.1 (1.1) 1.5 (1.4) 1.6 (1.4) 1.2 (1.1)
Comorbiditiesc, count: n (%)
 None 2289 (29) 1476 (27) 813 (37) 1889 (31) 1197 (27) 692 (38) 395 (25) 277 (23) 118 (32)
 1 2531 (33) 1785 (32) 746 (34) 2039 (33) 1422 (33) 617 (34) 488 (31) 359 (30) 129 (35)
 2–4 2742 (35) 2136 (38) 606 (28) 2094 (34) 1606 (37) 488 (27) 640 (41) 524 (43) 116 (32)
  ≥ 5 191 (3) 169 (3) 22 (1) 140 (2) 123 (3) 17 (1) 51 (3) 46 (4) 5 (1)
Falls (past month): n (%) 503 (6.0) 356 (7.0) 138 (6.0) 379 (6.2) 272 (6.4) 107 (5.9) 124 (7.9) 93 (7.7) 31 (8.4)
Immobilized: n(%) 1049 (13) 754 (14) 295 (13) 702 (11) 485 (11) 217 (12) 345 (21.9) 267 (22) 78 (21)
Calcium intake, food & supplements (mg/day): Mean (SD) 1020.6 (617.8) 1062.1 (625.8) 913.9 (583.2) 1005.1 (611.5) 1048.6 (622.2) 899.9(571.7) 1081.8 (639.0) 1111.7 (637.6) 983.4 (636.6)
Vitamin D, food and supplements (IU/day): Mean (SD) 298.1 (1003.4) 331.9 (1157.0) 211.8 (387.0) 276.8 (883.1) 305.2 (1027.2) 208.8 (334.0) 382.0 (1378) 429.9 (1537.0) 224.6 (582.1)
Use of antiresorptive drugs, baseline: n(%) 1527 (20) 1522 (27) 5 (0·2) 1217 (20) 1214 (28) 3 (0.2) 308 (19·6) 306 (25·4) 2 (0.54)
Use of antiresorptive drugs, year 10: n(%) 1361 (31) 1269 (39) 92 (8) 1059 (30·1) 990 (38.3) 69 (7.4) 301 (36.4) 278 (43) 23 (12.7)
Health-Related quality of life
 SF-36, Physical subscale score: Mean (SD) 46.2 (10.4) 45.7 (10.6) 47.6 (9.7) 46.7 (10.2) 46.3 (10.4) 47.8 (9.7) 44.1 (10.8) 43.4 (11.1) 46.4 (9.6)
 SF-36, Mental health subscale score: Mean (SD) 53.8 (8.6) 53.4 (8.9) 54.7 (7.8) 53.7 (8.6) 53.4 (8.8) 54.6 (7.9) 54.0 (8.7) 53.6 (9.2) 55.3 (6.9)
Cognitive status
 MMSE, total score: Mean (SD) 27.8 (2.4) 28.1 (2.3) 27.6 (2.7) 28.0 (2.4) 28.1 (2.3) 27.6 (2.6) 28.1 (2.4) 28.1 (2.2) 27.8 (3.0)
  1. aSample including all reported fractures; b Sample with low-incident fractures, excluding head, finger and toe fractures; n number of participants, SD standard deviation; NA not applicable; cComorbidities included in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) Frailty Index: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, breast cancer, uterine/prostate cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, thrombophlebitis, neuromuscular disease, diabetes type 1 or type 2, and kidney disease; MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, assessed in participants age 65+ years