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Table 1 Initial characteristics of the participants

From: An additive effect of leading role in the organization between social participation and dementia onset among Japanese older adults: the AGES cohort study

   Young-old (n = 9234) Old-old (n = 4616)
n % n %
Dementia onset No-dementia 8526 92.3 3327 72.1
Dementia 708 7.7 1289 27.9
Sex Male 4714 51.1 2080 45.1
Female 4520 48.9 2536 54.9
Social participation Non-participants 3003 32.5 1774 38.4
Regular-members 2514 27.2 1289 27.9
Leadership positions 2784 30.1 832 18.0
Missing 933 10.1 721 15.6
Age 65–69 5082 55.0
70–74 4152 45.0
75–79 2827 61.2
80–84 1269 27.5
≥ 85 520 11.3
Educational attainment < 10 yrs 5286 57.2 2849 61.7
≥ 10 yrs 3896 42.2 1712 37.1
Missing 52 0.6 55 1.2
Marital status Married 7343 79.5 2647 57.3
Single 1766 19.1 1891 41.0
Missing 125 1.4 78 1.7
Living arrangement Living with others 8294 89.8 3900 84.5
Living alone 779 8.4 569 12.3
Missing 161 1.7 147 3.2
Occupational status Employed 2806 30.4 608 13.2
Not employed 6296 68.2 3916 84.8
Missing 132 1.4 92 2.0
Walking time (per day) < 30 min 2794 30.3 1586 34.4
≥ 30 min 5523 59.8 2548 55.2
Missing 917 9.9 482 10.4
Medical history
 Heart disease No 8164 88.4 3809 82.5
Yes 1070 11.6 807 17.5
 Stroke No 9119 98.8 4520 97.9
Yes 115 1.2 96 2.1
 Hypertension No 6266 67.9 2905 62.9
Yes 2968 32.1 1711 37.1
 Diabetes No 8168 88.5 4157 90.1
Yes 1066 11.5 459 9.9
 Alcohol consumption Non-drinker 5535 59.9 3317 71.9
Drinker 3582 38.8 1181 25.6
Missing 117 1.3 118 2.6
 Smoking Never smoked 5312 57.5 2800 60.7
Past smoker/smoker 3615 39.1 1601 34.7
Missing 307 3.3 215 4.7
 Depression normal 6004 65.0 2591 56.1
depressed 2304 25.0 1316 28.5
Missing 926 10.0 709 15.4
 IADL High 7649 82.8 3196 69.2
Low 1335 14.5 1182 25.6
Missing 250 2.7 238 5.2