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Table 2 Association of total cholesterol with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality

From: Serum total cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in old age: a population-based study

Total   All-cause mortality Cardiovascular mortality Non-cardiovascular mortality
cholesterol (mmol/l) No. of subjects No. of deaths Mortality rate (per 1000 person-years) Hazard ratio (95% CI)a No. of deaths Mortality rate (per 1000 person-years) Hazard ratio (95% CI)b No. of deaths Mortality rate (per 1000 person-years) Hazard ratio (95% CI)b
Total sample
  < 5.18 687 325 71.8 1.00 (Ref.) 205 45.3 1.00 (Ref.) 120 26.5 1.00 (Ref.)
 5.18–6.21 1207 394 43.2 0.71 (0.61–0.83) 236 25.9 0.82 (0.66–1.02) 158 17.3 0.85 (0.66–1.09)
  ≥ 6.22 1196 340 35.6 0.68 (0.57–0.80) 221 23.2 0.98 (0.77–1.23) 119 12.5 0.67 (0.51–0.88)
P for trend     <0.001a    0.882b    0.004b
No use of cholesterol-lowering medications
  < 5.18 495 259 84.7 1.00 (Ref.) 162 53.0 1.00 (Ref.) 97 31.7 1.00 (Ref.)
 5.18–6.21 1066 358 44.7 0.70 (0.59–0.82) 213 26.6 0.79 (0.63–1.00) 145 18.1 0.88 (0.67–1.16)
  ≥ 6.22 1140 324 35.5 0.65 (0.54–0.77) 209 22.9 0.91 (0.72–1.17) 115 12.6 0.69 (0.51–0.92)
P for trend     <0.001a    0.573b    0.009b
Use of cholesterol-lowering medications
  < 5.18 189 64 44.0 1.00 (Ref.) 42 28.9 1.00 (Ref.) 22 15.1 1.00 (Ref.)
 5.18–6.21 138 33 29.6 0.76 (0.49–1.19) 22 19.7 0.84 (0.47–1.50) 11 9.9 0.75 (0.35–1.61)
  ≥ 6.22 54 14 33.2 1.03 (0.56–1.90) 11 26.0 1.47 (0.77–2.81) 3 7.1 0.52 (0.14–1.98)
P for trend     0.961a    0.561b    0.244b
  1. aHazard ratios (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were derived from Cox regression models that were controlled for age, sex, education, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, APOE ε4 allele, cognitive impairment, mobility limitation, and if applicable, for use of cholesterol-lowering drugs
  2. bHazard ratios (95% CIs) were derived from the competing risks model that was controlled for all variables mentioned in the above footnote