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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by survival status at follow-up

From: Serum total cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in old age: a population-based study

  Total Survival status at follow-up
Characteristics a   Alive Died P b
No. of subjects 3090 2031 1059  
Age (years), mean (SD) 73.3 (10.4) 69.0 (8.5) 81.5 (8.5) <0.001
Female, n (%) 1969 (63.7) 1298 (63.9) 671 (63.4) 0.764
Education, n (%)
 Elementary or middle school 505 (16.4) 223 (11.0) 282 (26.7)
 High school 1536 (49.8) 978 (48.2) 558 (52.8) 0.003
 University or above 1046 (33.9) 830 (40.9) 216 (20.5) 0.020
Smoking, n (%)
 Never 1442 (47.0) 908 (45.0) 534 (50.9)
 Former smoking 1178 (38.4) 812 (40.2) 366 (34.9) 0.022
 Current smoking 447 (14.6) 298 (14.8) 149 (14.2) <0.001
Heavy alcohol drinking, n (%) 495 (16.1) 376 (18.6) 119 (11.4) 0.406
Physical inactivity, n (%) 955 (30.9) 409 (20.1) 546 (51.6) <0.001
Obesity, n (%) 374 (12.1) 278 (13.7) 96 (9.1) 0.539
Hypertension, n (%) 2318 (75.3) 1448 (71.4) 870 (82.8) 0.887
Diabetes, n (%) 293 (9.5) 146 (7.2) 147 (14.0) <0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l), mean (SD) 6.0 (1.1) 6.1 (1.1) 5.8 (1.2) <0.001
Use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, n (%) 381 (12.4) 270 (13.3) 111 (10.6) 0.784
Cognitive impairment, n (%) 432 (14.0) 95 (4.7) 337 (31.9) <0.001
Mobility limitation, n (%) 826 (26.9) 231 (11.4) 595 (57.2) <0.001
APOE ε4, n (%) 835 (29.1) 569 (29.2) 266 (28.7) 0.046
  1. APOE ε4 apolipoprotein E ε4
  2. aData were missing in 3 subjects (3 dead) for education, 23 (10 dead) for smoking, 19 (11 dead) for alcohol consumption, 11 (8 dead) for hypertension, 12 (6 dead) for diabetes, 8 (7 dead) for use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 5 (4 dead) for cognitive impairment, 23 (19 dead) for walking speed, and 216 (133 dead) for ApoE4. These factors were considered as covariates in subsequent analyses, in which a dummy variable for each of these factors was created to represent the group of subjects with missing value
  3. b P-value is for the test of difference between those died and alive controlling for age